Decision-making in end-stage coronary artery disease: revascularization or heart transplantation?
ABSTRACT Left ventricular function is the most important predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease. It is also an important indicator for hospital and late mortality after operation for endstage coronary artery disease.
Between April 1986 and December 1994, 514 patients with end-stage coronary artery disease and left ventricular ejection fraction between 0.10 and 0.30 underwent coronary artery bypass grafting at the German Heart Institute Berlin. Two hundred twenty-five of these patients had been referred as possible candidates for heart transplantation. The prime criterion for bypass grafting was ischemia diagnosed by myocardial scintigraphy and echocardiography ("hibernating myocardium").
Operative mortality for the group was 7.1%. The actuarial survival rate was 90.8% after 2 years, 87.6% after 4, and 78.9% after 6. Left heart catheterizations performed 1 year after the operation showed that left ventricular ejection fraction had increased from a mean of 0.24 +/- 0.03 preoperatively to 0.39 +/- 0.06 postoperatively (p < 0.0001). Preoperatively 91.6% of the patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV; 6 months postoperatively 90.2% of the surviving patients were in NYHA class I or II. Two hundred thirty-one patients with end-stage coronary artery disease and predominant heart failure underwent heart transplantation. Their actuarial survival rate was 74.9% after 2 years, 73.2% after 4, and 68.9% after 6. All of the patients could be recategorized into NYHA class I or II after the operation.
We conclude that coronary artery bypass grafting and heart transplantation can be used successfully to improve the life expectancy of patients with end-stage coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting leads to an excellent prognosis for these high-risk patients when the myocardium is preoperatively identified as being viable.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The use of ventricular assist devices (VADs) in patients with chronic end-stage or acute heart failure has led to improved survival. We present our experience since 1987. Subjects and Methods: Between July 1987 and December 2006, 1026 VADs were implanted in 970 patients. Most of them were men (81.9%). The indications were: cardiomyopathy (n = 708), postcardiotomy heart failure (n = 173), acute myocardial infarction (n = 36), acute graft failure (n = 45), a VAD problem (n = 6), and others (n = 2). Mean age was 46.1 (range 3 days to 78) years. In 50.5% of the patients the VAD implanted was left ventricular, in 47.9% biventricular, and in 1.5% right ventricular. There were 14 different types of VAD. A total artificial heart was implanted in 14 patients. Results: Survival analysis showed higher early mortality (p < 0.05) in the postcardiotomy group (50.9%) than in patients with preoperative profound cardiogenic shock (31.1%) and patients with preoperative end-stage heart failure without severe shock (28.9%). A total of 270 patients were successfully bridged to heart transplantation (HTx). There were no significant differences in long-term survival after HTx among patients with and without previous VAD. In 76 patients the device could be explanted after myocardial recovery. In 72 patients the aim of implantation was permanent support. During the study period 114 patients were discharged home. Currently, 54 patients are on a device. Conclusions: VAD implantation may lead to recovery from secondary organ failure. Patients should be considered for VAD implantation before profound, possibly irreversible, cardiogenic shock occurs. In patients with postcardiotomy heart failure, a more efficient algorithm should be developed to improve survival. With increased experience, more VAD patients can participate in out-patient programs.Journal of Cardiac Surgery 04/2008; 23(3):185 - 194. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with low ejection fraction (EF) are at a higher risk for postoperative complications and mortality. Our objective was to assess the effect of low EF on clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We analyzed 55,515 patients from New York State database who underwent CABG between 1997 and 1999. Patients were stratified into 1 of the 4 EF groups: Group I (EF< or =20%), Group II (EF 21% to 30%), Group III (EF 31% to 40%), and Group IV (EF>40%). History of previous myocardial infarction, renal failure, and congestive heart failure were higher in patients with low EF (all P<0.001). Group I experienced a higher incidence of postoperative respiratory failure (10.1% versus 2.9%), renal failure (2.5% versus 0.6%), and sepsis (2.5% versus 0.6%) compared with Group IV. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in Group I (6.5% versus 1.4%; P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed hepatic failure [odds ratio (OR), 11.2], renal failure (OR, 4.1), previous myocardial infarction (OR, 3.4), reoperation (OR, 3.4), emergent procedures (OR, 3.2), female gender (OR, 1.7), congestive heart failure (OR, 1.6), and age (OR, 1.04) as independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in the low EF group. The discharges to home rate were significantly lower in Group I versus Group IV (73.1% and 87.7%, respectively; P<0.001). Patients with low EF are sicker at baseline and have >4 times higher mortality than patients with high EF. However, outcomes are improving over time and are superior to historical data. Therefore, CABG remains a viable option in selected patients with low EF.Circulation 09/2005; 112(9 Suppl):I344-50. · 14.74 Impact Factor
Article: Treatment of extensive ischemic cardiomyopathy: quality of life following two different surgical strategies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To review outcomes and quality of life following two surgical strategies for severe left ventricular dysfunction due to ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Hospital and follow-up records of 111 patients with extensive ischemic cardiomyopathy (mean age 57.3+/-8.4) referring to our institution between January 1996 and December 2003 were reviewed. Group A included 42 patients (mean age 62.4+/-7.9) with morphological and functional cardiac parameters allowing for ventricular restoration (including endoventricular circular patch plasty, coronary artery by-pass grafting, and, when needed, mitral surgery). Group B included 69 patients (mean age 54.3+/-7.2), undergoing cardiac transplantation. Hospital mortality, treatment-related late mortality, incidence of cardiac events, freedom from cardiac failure, freedom from hospital re-admission, functional recovery at follow-up (3075.2pts/months; 100% complete) and quality of life (WHOQOL test) were assessed. Hospital mortality was 19% in group A and 8.7% in group B (P=0.143). No treatment-related late deaths were observed in group A, while six deaths (9.5%) occurred in group B (P=0.063). Incidence of cardiac events was comparable. At 60 months, freedom from cardiac failure was 93.5+/-0.04 and 86.2+/-0.05%, respectively (P=0.23), freedom from hospital re-admission was 93.5+/-0.04 and 61.3+/-0.07% (P=0.002). Exertion dyspnea was present in 40% patients in group A versus 13% in group B (P=0.006). WHOQOL test showed a satisfying quality of life in both groups, although patients undergoing restoration reached higher scores in the psychological and social domains. Selected patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, potentially eligible for transplantation, can be managed by ventricular restoration. In those patients post-operative quality of life is satisfactory, with comparable survival and low risk of re-hospitalization.European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 04/2005; 27(3):481-7; discussion 487. · 2.55 Impact Factor