Decision-making in end-stage coronary artery disease: revascularization or heart transplantation?
ABSTRACT Left ventricular function is the most important predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease. It is also an important indicator for hospital and late mortality after operation for endstage coronary artery disease.
Between April 1986 and December 1994, 514 patients with end-stage coronary artery disease and left ventricular ejection fraction between 0.10 and 0.30 underwent coronary artery bypass grafting at the German Heart Institute Berlin. Two hundred twenty-five of these patients had been referred as possible candidates for heart transplantation. The prime criterion for bypass grafting was ischemia diagnosed by myocardial scintigraphy and echocardiography ("hibernating myocardium").
Operative mortality for the group was 7.1%. The actuarial survival rate was 90.8% after 2 years, 87.6% after 4, and 78.9% after 6. Left heart catheterizations performed 1 year after the operation showed that left ventricular ejection fraction had increased from a mean of 0.24 +/- 0.03 preoperatively to 0.39 +/- 0.06 postoperatively (p < 0.0001). Preoperatively 91.6% of the patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV; 6 months postoperatively 90.2% of the surviving patients were in NYHA class I or II. Two hundred thirty-one patients with end-stage coronary artery disease and predominant heart failure underwent heart transplantation. Their actuarial survival rate was 74.9% after 2 years, 73.2% after 4, and 68.9% after 6. All of the patients could be recategorized into NYHA class I or II after the operation.
We conclude that coronary artery bypass grafting and heart transplantation can be used successfully to improve the life expectancy of patients with end-stage coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting leads to an excellent prognosis for these high-risk patients when the myocardium is preoperatively identified as being viable.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with heart failure symptoms due to ischemic cardiomyopathy face a poor prognosis without adequate treatment. In these patients with viable ischemic myocardium, revascularization surgery is not a new but an established treatment concept. the CASS study, published in 1983, was already able to document the superiority of coronary artery revascularization in patients with poor left ventricular function. It is of utmost importance to predict regional functional recovery in order to assess viability and, thus, the indication for revascularization. Late gadoliniium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance is the new gold standard. By applying this technique, it can be demonstrated that the transmural extent of a scar predicts segmental functional recovery. Numerous studies describe the predictors of survival of surgical revascularization, the indication and impact of medical antiarrhythmic treatment or choice of graft. In addition to conventional surgery, off-pump procedures, minimal extracorporeal circulation and hybrid revascularization have a special role in the treatment of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Surgical techniques and medical therapies continue to improve. The future revascularization in these patients will focus on improving results and making coronary artery bypass grafting for elective revascularization less invasive and safer. Technical evolution, including the use of robotics and anastomotic connectors, intraoperative imaging and protein enzyme therapies, have to be defined concerning their special impact in these patients.HSR proceedings in intensive care & cardiovascular anesthesia. 01/2013; 5(2):89-97.
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ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study is to determine the results of coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with a low ejection fraction. Between January 2007 and January 2011, 3556 consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting at the Cardiovascular Surgery Clinic at Sifa University Hospital, Izmir, Turkey, were analyzed retrospectively.Methods: The patients were divided into 2 groups. Patients undergoing isolated first-time elective coronary bypass surgery were classified according to their preoperative ejection fraction; Patients in Group I had an ejection fraction between 20% and 35% with poor left ventricular function (n = 1246; 695 men and 551 women; mean age, 62.25 ± 5.72 years, range, 47-78 years). Control patients in Group II underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting at the same time and had left ventricular ejection fraction between 36% and 49% (n = 2310; 1211 men and 1099 women; mean age, 61.83 ± 8.12 years, range, 41-81 years). The mean follow-up time for all patients was 24 ± 9.4 months (range, 12-48 months). Patients were followed postoperatively at the end of the first month and every 6 months. The left ventricular ejection fraction was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography.Results: The mean number of distal anastomoses, myocardial infarction, and mean age was not significantly different between the 2 groups; however, cross-clamp time was longer in Group I. Patient recovery time was significantly longer in Group I. Morbidity (14.5% in Group I versus 7.4% in Group II, P < .005) and mortality (1.76% versus 0.30%, P < .005) were higher in Group I. During late follow-up, the 2-year survival rate (85.1% versus 94.5%) and 2-year event-free rate (77.6% versus 86.9%) were significantly lower in Group I when compared to Group II. Postoperative left ventricular ejection fraction values were significantly superior in Group I compared to Group II.Conclusion: Coronary artery bypass grafting can be safely performed in patients with low ejection fraction with minimal postoperative morbidity and mortality. The viable myocardium could be reliably determined by positron emission tomography. Low ejection fraction patients could greatly benefit from coronary bypass surgery regarding postoperative ejection fraction, increased long-term survival, improvement in New York Heart Association classification, and higher quality of life.Heart Surgery Forum 06/2013; 16(3):E118-E124. · 0.63 Impact Factor
- HSR proceedings in intensive care & cardiovascular anesthesia. 01/2013; 5(2):69-75.