Decision-making in end-stage coronary artery disease: revascularization or heart transplantation?
ABSTRACT Left ventricular function is the most important predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease. It is also an important indicator for hospital and late mortality after operation for endstage coronary artery disease.
Between April 1986 and December 1994, 514 patients with end-stage coronary artery disease and left ventricular ejection fraction between 0.10 and 0.30 underwent coronary artery bypass grafting at the German Heart Institute Berlin. Two hundred twenty-five of these patients had been referred as possible candidates for heart transplantation. The prime criterion for bypass grafting was ischemia diagnosed by myocardial scintigraphy and echocardiography ("hibernating myocardium").
Operative mortality for the group was 7.1%. The actuarial survival rate was 90.8% after 2 years, 87.6% after 4, and 78.9% after 6. Left heart catheterizations performed 1 year after the operation showed that left ventricular ejection fraction had increased from a mean of 0.24 +/- 0.03 preoperatively to 0.39 +/- 0.06 postoperatively (p < 0.0001). Preoperatively 91.6% of the patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV; 6 months postoperatively 90.2% of the surviving patients were in NYHA class I or II. Two hundred thirty-one patients with end-stage coronary artery disease and predominant heart failure underwent heart transplantation. Their actuarial survival rate was 74.9% after 2 years, 73.2% after 4, and 68.9% after 6. All of the patients could be recategorized into NYHA class I or II after the operation.
We conclude that coronary artery bypass grafting and heart transplantation can be used successfully to improve the life expectancy of patients with end-stage coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting leads to an excellent prognosis for these high-risk patients when the myocardium is preoperatively identified as being viable.
- SourceAvailable from: nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Between April 1992 and April 1994, 185 patients were waiting for a cardiac transplant at our institution. Transplantation was performed in 118 of these patients. Twenty-six patients (14%) died while awaiting a donor heart: 13 of these were in the intensive care unit on multiple inotropic medications, mechanical support, or both; another 13 were either in the hospital on a single inotropic medication or at home with or without inotropic support. The remaining 41 patients were still awaiting transplantation at the end of the study period. During the same interval, 20 comparably ill patients who were referred to our institution for transplantation were considered for high-risk conventional surgical procedures. These patients underwent clinical evaluation to determine whether they had viable muscle that was salvageable and electrophysiologic status that was alterable. On this basis, these 20 patients underwent a variety of combined high-risk procedures. Two patients died; the operative mortality was 5% and the cumulative mortality was 10%. We conclude that these initial results support our original impression that mortality rates are higher in patients waiting for cardiac donation than in patients undergoing high-risk surgical procedures. Therefore, we will continue to investigate high-risk conventional surgery as an alternative to cardiac transplantation.Texas Heart Institute journal / from the Texas Heart Institute of St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital 02/1994; 21(4):302-4. · 0.67 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As investigators have discovered that cardiac regions displaying resting wall motion abnormalities are not the necessary equivalent of myocardial scar (and therefore of irreversible injury) but are potentially viable regions rendered dysfunctional by stunning or hibernation, a new field of medicine has developed to identify viable myocardium that can improve in function after revascularization. Moreover, improvements in myocardial preservation and perfusion during coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty have enabled patients with poor resting ejection fractions to undergo safer revascularization. In this review, we describe briefly the diagnostic techniques most commonly used in identifying dysfunctional but viable myocardium. We give specific attention to the assets and limitations of these techniques and special emphasis to 2 promising new techniques: dobutamine echocardiography and myocardial contrast echocardiography.Texas Heart Institute journal / from the Texas Heart Institute of St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital 02/1995; 22(1):33-9. · 0.67 Impact Factor
- The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 13(4):561-70. · 5.11 Impact Factor