Decision-making in end-stage coronary artery disease: revascularization or heart transplantation?
ABSTRACT Left ventricular function is the most important predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease. It is also an important indicator for hospital and late mortality after operation for endstage coronary artery disease.
Between April 1986 and December 1994, 514 patients with end-stage coronary artery disease and left ventricular ejection fraction between 0.10 and 0.30 underwent coronary artery bypass grafting at the German Heart Institute Berlin. Two hundred twenty-five of these patients had been referred as possible candidates for heart transplantation. The prime criterion for bypass grafting was ischemia diagnosed by myocardial scintigraphy and echocardiography ("hibernating myocardium").
Operative mortality for the group was 7.1%. The actuarial survival rate was 90.8% after 2 years, 87.6% after 4, and 78.9% after 6. Left heart catheterizations performed 1 year after the operation showed that left ventricular ejection fraction had increased from a mean of 0.24 +/- 0.03 preoperatively to 0.39 +/- 0.06 postoperatively (p < 0.0001). Preoperatively 91.6% of the patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV; 6 months postoperatively 90.2% of the surviving patients were in NYHA class I or II. Two hundred thirty-one patients with end-stage coronary artery disease and predominant heart failure underwent heart transplantation. Their actuarial survival rate was 74.9% after 2 years, 73.2% after 4, and 68.9% after 6. All of the patients could be recategorized into NYHA class I or II after the operation.
We conclude that coronary artery bypass grafting and heart transplantation can be used successfully to improve the life expectancy of patients with end-stage coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting leads to an excellent prognosis for these high-risk patients when the myocardium is preoperatively identified as being viable.
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ABSTRACT: We report our experience with systematic coronary revascularization on the beating heart among patients with left ventricular dysfunction as defined by a left ventricular ejection fraction < or = 40%. Between September 1996 and April 2000, 500 off-pump (OPCAB) revascularizations were performed (95% of all revascularizations for the same time frame, single surgeon). Among them, 76 patients qualified as left ventricular dysfunction and were compared to a similar cohort of 237 patients operated on with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during the same time frame. Age and sex distribution, average preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction and incidence of preoperative unstable angina were the same for both groups. On average, 3.04 +/- 0.89 and 2.97 +/- 0.69 grafts/patient were made in the OPCAB and CPB groups respectively (p = NS). Complete revascularization was achieved in 95% of the OPCAB group. Incidence of preoperative intra-aortic balloon assistance were higher in OPCAB (22% versus 9%, p = 0.005) whereas postoperative need for new intra-aortic balloon assistance was higher in CPB (8% versus 0%, p = 0.02). Incidence of postoperative myocardial infarction was comparable in both groups (6.5% versus 5.5%). Maximal creatinine phosphate of myocardial origin were lower in OPCAB group (beating heart: 32 +/- 52%, cardiopulmonary bypass: 45 +/- 51%, p = 0.055). Operative mortality was lower in OPCAB group although it did not reach statistical significance (beating heart: 2.6% versus cardiopulmonary bypass: 4.6%, p = 0.3). Complete coronary revascularization on the beating heart can be achieved in patients with left ventricular dysfunction with excellent outcome and low operative mortality.Annales de Cardiologie et d Angéiologie 09/2001; 50(5):252-60. · 0.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim: Postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock (PCCS) is associated with high mortality rates, despite full conventional treatment. Although the results of treatment with surgically implantable ventricular assist devices have been encouraging, the invasiveness of this treatment limits its applicability. Several less invasive devices have been developed, including the Impella system. The objective of this study was to describe our three-center experience with the Impella 5.0 device in the setting of PCCS. Methods. From January 2004 through December 2010, a total of 46 patients were diagnosed with treatment-refractory PCCS and treated with the Impella 5.0 percutaneous left ventricular assist device at three european heart centers. Baseline and follow-up characteristics were collected retrospectively and entered into a dedicated database. Results: Within the study cohort of 46 patients, mean logistic and additive EuroSCORES were 24±19 and 10±4. The majority of patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (48%) or combined surgery (33%). Half of all patients had been treated with an intra-aortic balloon pump before 5.0-implantation, 1 patient had been treated with an Impella 2.5 device. All patients were on mechanical ventilation and intravenous inotropes. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall 30-day survival was 39.5%. Conclusion: Thirty-day survival rates for patients with PCCS, refractory to aggressive conventional treatment and treated with the Impella 5.0 device, are comparable to those reported in studies evaluating surgically implantable VADs, whereas the Impella system is much less invasive. Therefore, mechanical circulatory support with the Impella 5.0 device is a suitable treatment modality for patients with severe PCCS.Minerva cardioangiologica 10/2013; 61(5):539-546. · 0.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with heart failure symptoms due to ischemic cardiomyopathy face a poor prognosis without adequate treatment. In these patients with viable ischemic myocardium, revascularization surgery is not a new but an established treatment concept. the CASS study, published in 1983, was already able to document the superiority of coronary artery revascularization in patients with poor left ventricular function. It is of utmost importance to predict regional functional recovery in order to assess viability and, thus, the indication for revascularization. Late gadoliniium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance is the new gold standard. By applying this technique, it can be demonstrated that the transmural extent of a scar predicts segmental functional recovery. Numerous studies describe the predictors of survival of surgical revascularization, the indication and impact of medical antiarrhythmic treatment or choice of graft. In addition to conventional surgery, off-pump procedures, minimal extracorporeal circulation and hybrid revascularization have a special role in the treatment of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Surgical techniques and medical therapies continue to improve. The future revascularization in these patients will focus on improving results and making coronary artery bypass grafting for elective revascularization less invasive and safer. Technical evolution, including the use of robotics and anastomotic connectors, intraoperative imaging and protein enzyme therapies, have to be defined concerning their special impact in these patients.HSR proceedings in intensive care & cardiovascular anesthesia. 01/2013; 5(2):89-97.