Early Lethality, Functional NF-κB Activation, and Increased Sensitivity to TNF-Induced Cell Death in TRAF2-Deficient Mice
ABSTRACT TRAF2 is an intracellular signal-transducing protein recruited to the TNFR1 and TNFR2 receptors following TNF stimulation. To investigate the physiological role of TRAF2, we generated TRAF2-deficient mice. traf2-/- mice appeared normal at birth but became progressively runted and died prematurely. Atrophy of the thymus and spleen and depletion of B cell precursors also were observed. Thymocytes and other hematopoietic progenitors were highly sensitive to TNF-induced cell death and serum TNF levels were elevated in these TRAF2-deficient animals. Examination of traf2-/- cells revealed a severe reduction in TNF-mediated JNK/SAPK activation but a mild effect on NF-kappaB activation. These results suggest that TRAF2-independent pathways of NF-kappaB activation exist and that TRAF2 is required for an NF-kappaB-independent signal that protects against TNF-induced apoptosis.
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ABSTRACT: Signal transduction from toll-like receptors (TLRs) is important for innate immunity against infections, but deregulated TLR signalling contributes to inflammatory disorders. Here we show that myeloid cell-specific ablation of TRAF2 greatly promotes TLR-stimulated proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages and exacerbates colitis in an animal model of inflammatory bowel disease. TRAF2 deficiency does not enhance upstream signalling events, but it causes accumulation of two transcription factors, c-Rel and IRF5, known to mediate proinflammatory cytokine induction. Interestingly, TRAF2 controls the fate of c-Rel and IRF5 via a proteasome-dependent mechanism that also requires TRAF3 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase cIAP. We further show that TRAF2 also regulates inflammatory cytokine production in tumour-associated macrophages and facilitates tumour growth. These findings demonstrate an unexpected anti-inflammatory function of TRAF2 and suggest a proteasome-dependent mechanism that limits the proinflammatory TLR signalling.Nature Communications 01/2015; 6:5930. DOI:10.1038/ncomms6930 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ability to differentiate genetically modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional macrophages provides a potentially attractive resource to study host-pathogen interactions without the need for animal experimentation. This is particularly useful in instances where the gene of interest is essential and a knockout mouse is not available. Here we differentiated mouse ES cells into macrophages in vitro and showed, through a combination of flow cytometry, microscopic imaging, and RNA-Seq, that ES cell-derived macrophages responded to S. Typhimurium, in a comparable manner to mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. We constructed a homozygous mutant mouse ES cell line in the Traf2 gene that is known to play a role in tumour necrosis factor-α signalling but has not been studied for its role in infections or response to Toll-like receptor agonists. Interestingly, traf2-deficient macrophages produced reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagellin stimulation and exhibited increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium infection.Scientific Reports 03/2015; 5:8908. DOI:10.1038/srep08908 · 5.08 Impact Factor
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2000; 275(16):12102-12107. DOI:10.1074/jbc.275.16.12102 · 4.60 Impact Factor