[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The abuse of volatile organic solvents (inhalants) leads to diverse sequelae at levels ranging from the cell to the whole organism. This paper reviews findings from the last 10 years of animal models investigating the behavioral and mechanistic effects of solvent abuse. In research with animal models of inhalant abuse, NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, nicotine, and 5HT(3) receptors appear to be important targets of action for several abused solvents with emerging evidence suggesting that other receptor subtypes and nerve membrane ion channels may be involved as well. The behavioral effects vary in magnitude and duration among the solvents investigated. The behavioral effects of acute and chronic inhalant abuse include motor impairment, alterations in spontaneous motor activity, anticonvulsant effects, anxiolytic effects, sensory effects, and effects on learning, memory and operant behavior (e.g., response rates and discriminative stimulus effects). In addition, repeated exposure to these solvents may produce tolerance, dependence and/or sensitization to these effects.
Neurotoxicology and Teratology 01/2006; 28(6):636-47. · 3.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toluene and xylene are aromatic hydrocarbons commonly used as an industrial solvent for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, paints, and chemicals. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has determined that toluene levels of 2000 parts per million (ppm) are considered dangerous to life and health. Several studies have examined the absorption of toluene and xylene following inhalation and oral ingestion in humans. Volatile organic compounds that are absorbed into the blood are distributed throughout the body; in particular, distribution of absorbed toluene and xylene in humans and rodents is characterized by preferential uptake in well-perfused and lipophil tissues such as the brain, liver, lungs, and body fat and also in central nervous system. The available studies indicate that xylenes are rapidly absorbed independently from the kind of exposition. We illustrate a fatal case of self-poisoning by ingestion of varnishes diluting solvents, reporting the identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds (toluene, o-m-p xylene) from human biologic liquids and viscera samples using the Solid–Phase Microextraction-Headspace-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry to toxicological analysis, and the histopathological findings evaluated in liver, kidney, and lungs.
American Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology 05/2010; 31(2):186-191. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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