Article

Mental retardation: a review of the past 10 years. Part I.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, USA.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 6.35). 01/1998; 36(12):1656-63. DOI: 10.1097/00004583-199712000-00013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To review the literature over the past decade on mental retardation, particularly as regards its definition, prevalence, major causes, and associated mental disorders.
A computerized search was performed for articles published in the past decade, and selected papers were highlighted.
The study of mental retardation has benefited considerably by advances in medicine generally and by developments in molecular neurobiology in particular. Increasing awareness of psychiatric comorbidity in the context of intellectual disability highlights the need for studies of the phenomenology and treatment of mental disorders in this population.
Although the study of developmental disorders has advanced significantly over the past decade, considerable work remains. Mental retardation is a model for the utility of the biopsychosocial approach in medicine.

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Available from: Elisabeth M Dykens, Jul 05, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Currently Intellectual disability (ID) is classified as a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Intelligence Quotient (IQ) below 70 and an impairment in adaptive skills during the developmental period. We argue that because so many children/adults with ID have language based deficits, mental age comparison or matching of individuals from different ID groups or to a typically developing (TD) group should be according to their overall performance on a non-verbally based measure, such as the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM). We suggest that the RCPM should replace the commonly used WISC-IV measure of intelligence, as a means of matching groups of ID and TD group on mental age as it is a better measure of reasoning ability in children with ID who invariably have verbally based deficits. In addition, we present evidence that RCPM mental aged matched children with low functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS), idiopathic ID use different problem solving strategies than TD children, to achieve the same overall performance on the RCPM. This is presumably due to group difference in brain impairments as evidenced by brain imaging studies. We also present evidence from the literature that working memory is a major component of successful performance on an IQ test and impairment in working memory in ID could also affect problem solving abilities on the RCPM. The theoretical and educational implications of the discrepancy between similar overall performance level on an intelligence test, but different use of strategy are also explored.
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