Mental retardation: a review of the past 10 years. Part I.
ABSTRACT To review the literature over the past decade on mental retardation, particularly as regards its definition, prevalence, major causes, and associated mental disorders.
A computerized search was performed for articles published in the past decade, and selected papers were highlighted.
The study of mental retardation has benefited considerably by advances in medicine generally and by developments in molecular neurobiology in particular. Increasing awareness of psychiatric comorbidity in the context of intellectual disability highlights the need for studies of the phenomenology and treatment of mental disorders in this population.
Although the study of developmental disorders has advanced significantly over the past decade, considerable work remains. Mental retardation is a model for the utility of the biopsychosocial approach in medicine.
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ABSTRACT: The expression of emotions and internal states by individuals with severe or profound intellectual disabilities is a comparatively under-researched area. Comprehensive or standardized methods of assessing or understanding the emotions and internal states within this population, whose ability to communicate is significantly compromised, do not exist. The literature base will be discussed and compared to that applicable to the general population. Methods of assessing broader internal states, notably depression, anxiety, and pain within severe or profound intellectual disabilities are also addressed. Finally, this review will examine methods of assessing internal states within genetic syndromes, including hunger, social anxiety, and happiness within Prader-Willi, Fragile-X and Angelman syndrome. This will allow for identification of robust methodologies used in assessing the expression of these internal states, some of which may be useful when considering how to assess emotions within individuals with intellectual disabilities.Clinical psychology review 04/2011; 31(3):293-306. · 4.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: : The main objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and features of autism spectrum disorders in trigonocephalic patients, using validated instruments and by ruling out the confounding influence of IQ. The second aim was to assess the association between extracranial anomalies and cognitive and/or behavioral problems in patients with trigonocephaly. : Objectives were studied in 82 trigonocephalic patients aged 4 to 18 years at the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Features of autism spectrum disorders were assessed using the Social Communication Questionnaire. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Parent Version. The presence and nature of extracranial anomalies were ascertained by a clinician. : Mental retardation (IQ <70) was present in 9 percent of patients with trigonocephaly. Findings indicated a 70 percent versus 24 percent prevalence of psychopathology (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, or features of autism spectrum disorder) in patients with IQ levels of, respectively, <85 and ≥85. In the latter group, psychopathology was not significantly more common than expected based on prevalence rates reported in community samples. Extracranial anomalies were significantly correlated with lower IQ levels. However, when adjusted for IQ, the presence of extracranial malformations was not associated with an increased risk of behavioral problems. : The relatively high prevalence of behavioral problems in patients with trigonocephaly seems to be mainly attributable to the co-occurrence of trigonocephaly and low intelligence. : Risk, II.Plastic and reconstructive surgery 10/2012; 130(4):885-93. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dual diagnosis (DD) refers to the coexistence of intellectual disability and psychiatric disorder. In order to provide individuals with DD with adequate care, it is essential for mental health workers to have adequate knowledge and positive attitudes. These may be achieved through proper training. To summarise the available literature examining the knowledge, attitudes and training of psychiatrists and other professional caregivers in regard to serving people with DD. A search strategy was developed to find manuscripts published in English since 1995. Twenty-seven studies on knowledge, attitudes and training in the field of DD were identified and reviewed in this paper. The findings of this review stress the need to improve the knowledge, competence and attitudes of practitioners within the DD field via training and practice opportunities. In light of this review, recommendations for improving training opportunities and for conducting future research are made.Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 05/2011; 56(3):291-304. · 1.88 Impact Factor