The influence of gating on measurements of myocardium at risk and infarct size during acute myocardial infarction by tomographic technetium 99m-labeled sestamibi imaging.
ABSTRACT Serial perfusion imaging with 99mTc-labeled sestamibi has been useful in the assessment of myocardial salvage from reperfusion therapy during acute myocardial infarction. Studies in animal models have shown that discernible perfusion defects can be created by left ventricular asynergy from partial volume effects in the setting of homogenous perfusion tracer distribution. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of gating on serial perfusion images during acute myocardial infarction to determine the magnitude of potential partial volume effects.
99mTc-labeled sestamibi was injected into 18 patients during acute myocardial infarction and 29 patients 5 to 8 days after myocardial infarction. Tomographic imaging was acquired in gated format (16 frames per R-R cycle of the electrocardiogram) for each set of images. All frames were summed to produce ungated images. Tomographic images were quantified on three different thresholds to define the perfusion defect: 50%, 60%, and 70% of maximal counts. Severity of perfusion defects was calculated as the lowest ratio of minimum/maximum counts on five short-axis slices. Regional wall motion was assessed subjectively on the gated images by cine-loop display. Radionuclide ventriculography was performed at 6 weeks. There was a close correlation between perfusion defect size on ungated images and end-diastolic and end-systolic images independent of the quantitative threshold used (r = 0.90 to 0.93; p < 0.0001 for all correlations). Gated images provided consistently significantly greater estimates of perfusion defect size and severity by a small increment (3% to 9% of the left ventricle; p < 0.05 for all comparisons) independently of the quantitative threshold used or the time of imaging (acute or late). Ungated images provided slightly better correlations with left ventricular ejection fraction at 6 weeks independently of the quantitative threshold used and despite significant wall motion abnormalities present on both the acute and final studies.
The differences between perfusion defect size for gated and ungated images were highly significant as a group, but the magnitude of difference was small and not clinically relevant. The larger estimates provided by end-diastolic gated images are opposite the difference expected if partial volume effects were significantly influencing perfusion defect size. Partial volume effects appear to have minimal impact on clinical tomographic imaging during acute myocardial infarction for the quantification of myocardium at risk and infarct size.
Article: [Evolution of systolic function and myocardial perfusion, evaluated by gated-SPECT, in the first year after acute myocardial infarction].[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Systolic function and myocardial perfusion are evaluated before hospital discharge and can change during follow-up. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these parameters by gated-SPECT in the first year after acute myocardial infarction. We studied 74 consecutive patients with a first uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (49 infero-lateral and 25 anterior) by stress-rest 99mTc-tetrofosmin and rest-gated-SPECT before hospital discharge (6-8 days after admission) and one year after myocardial infarction. The ejection fraction (EF) increased > 5% in 51% of infero-lateral infarcts and 28% of non-revascularized anterior infarcts. EF increased significantly (48.4 8% to 54.6 8.7%; p < 0.0001, mean difference: 6.2; 95% IC, 2.8-9.5) and systolic volume decreased (51.3 19.2 ml to 44.3 19.4 ml; p = 0.001; mean diff.: 7.67; 95% IC, 1.5-13.8) in infero-lateral infarctions. The rest perfusion index in the necrotic region improved (2.3 0.57 to 2.17 0.58; p = 0.004; mean diff.: 0.18; 95% IC, 0.003-0.36) in infero-lateral infarcts and the ischemia index remained unchanged between the first and second studies. Left ventricular systolic function can change during the first year of evolution, a significant improvement being seen in infero-lateral infarctions. The ejection fraction increased > 5% in half of these patients, as opposed to only a quarter of anterior infarctions. This improvement was associated to increased myocardial perfusion at rest.Revista Espa de Cardiologia 05/2003; 56(5):438-44. · 2.53 Impact Factor
Article: Value of gating of technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine how frequently and for what reasons the addition of electrocardiographically gated technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images add value to nongated SPECT perfusion images. Electrocardiographic gating of Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT images permits assessment of regional and global left ventricular function and may assist in differentiating attenuation artifacts from myocardial scar. A total of 285 consecutive patients (143 women and 142 men; mean age 57.6 +/- 11.5 years) underwent gated SPECT Tc-99m sestamibi imaging (212 with exercise, 63 with dipyridamole and 10 with dobutamine). The conventional stress and rest tomograms were interpreted first by means of a 14-segment scoring system, and then the studies were reinterpreted while the gated images were viewed. In the total group of 285 patients, the number of "borderline" interpretations was reduced from 89 to 29. In the 137 patients with a < or = 10% pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease, the addition of gated images added significantly to the percentage of interpretations that were designated "normal" (74% [101 of 137] vs. 93% [127 of 137], p < 0.0001), due to a reduction in borderline normal and borderline abnormal readings. In 49 patients with a previous infarction or recent angiography with > or = 70% stenosis, or both, the addition of gated images changed the percentage of "abnormal" scan interpretations from 78% (38 of 49) to 92% (45 of 49). This result was not significant (p = 0.09, two-tailed), but the trend was toward a greater number of unequivocal abnormal interpretations in this subgroup. The addition of electrocardiographically gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT images to the reading of stress and rest perfusion images alone resulted in shifting the final scan interpretations to a more normal designation in patients with a low pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease, and to more abnormal defects consistent with coronary artery disease in patients with known coronary artery disease. The number of "borderline normal" and "borderline abnormal" interpretations are significantly reduced when gated SPECT images are interpreted simultaneously with stress and rest perfusion images.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/1998; 30(7):1687-92. · 14.16 Impact Factor