The serotonin transporter (HTT) is a candidate gene for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that has been associated with anxiety-related traits. The long (l) and short (s) variants of the HTT promoter have different transcriptional efficiencies. HTT promoter genotype and blood 5-HT concentration were examined in 70 subjects from 20 families ascertained through children and adolescents with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of OCD. The HTT promoter variant had a significant effect on blood 5-HT content. Subjects with the l/l and l/s genotypes had significantly higher blood 5-HT levels than did those with the s/s genotype. There was a significant interaction between HTT promoter genotype and seasonal variation in blood 5-HT content, with significant seasonal differences in 5-HT occurring only in the subjects with the l/l genotype. Further studies of the regulation of HTT gene expression are indicated.
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"Heils et al. (1995, 1996) first reported the 5-HTT promoter region polymorphism identified at the promoter site of approximately 1 kb and demonstrated that the polymorphism could alter transcriptional levels of 5-HTT whilst, Collier et al. (1996) reported that the polymorphism (44 bp insertion and deletion) affected the expression efficiency of 5-HT, and proposed that it was linked to various mental disorders. The short (s) and long (l) allele variants of 5-HTT functional length promoter polymorphic region are called 5-HTTLPR and it has been shown that subjects with s allele (s/s or s/l) have lower 5-HT levels in blood platelets, lymphoblast cell and brain (Hanna et al., 1998; Lesch et al., 1996; Little et al., 1998). These studies prompted several research groups to investigate the role of 5-HTTLPR in depression and other neuroticism, of which some of the studies showed 5-HTTLPR association with anxiety, agreeableness, other neuroticism (Lesch et al., 1996, Greenberg et al., 2000, Melke et al., 2001), anticipatory worry and fear of uncertainity (Mazzanti et al., 1998) while others did not (Gustavsson et al., 1999; Jorm et al., 1998). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stress is clearly associated with the quality of life and many diseases, including mental
disorders, with cortisol being a recognized biomarker for stress. Polymorphisms of the
serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT), which results in long and short forms, have been
reported to be associated with depression among major depressive disorder (MDD) patients.
We have previously shown that 5-HTTLPR and waking cortisol do not predict depression in
a general population sample, however, psychological resilience is a defence against
depression. Reelin is an emerging biomarker for psychological resilience that plays an active
role in neuronal migration. It is responsible for cytoarchitechtonic pattern formation in brain
and modulates the migration of newly generated postmitotic neurons from the ventricular
zone. In mice, overexpression of reelin in the hippocampus has anti-depressant activity by
increasing neurogenesis and improving learning. A number of single nucleotide
polymorphisms (SNPs), methylation of the promoter and coding region of the reelin (RELN)
gene have been identified which affect the level of RELN mRNA and protein expression.
Thus RELN is a potential candidate as a biomarker of psychological resilience and we have
developed a rapid high-resolution melting (HRM) PCR analysis technique for the RELN
SNPs and loci using gDNA isolated from buccal cells to test this hypothesis.
"Two polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene have usually been examined with respect to their relation with behavioral variation. The first polymorphism, the 'linked polymorphic region' (LPR; or 5HTTLPR), has two common repeat alleles—short (S; 14 repeat) or long (L; 16 repeat)—that differentially modulate the transcription of SLC6A4, with the S allele demonstrated to have less transcriptional efficiency (Greenberg et al., 1999; Hanna et al., 1998; Heinz et al., 2000). Because the S allele is believed to be functionally dominant, SS and SL genotypes are often grouped together and compared with the LL genotype in analyses. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used observed parenting behaviors, along with genetic variants and haplotypes of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), as predictors of children's ego-resiliency during early childhood (N = 153). The quality of mothers' parenting was observed at 18 months of age, and mothers' reports of ego-resiliency were collected at six time points from 18 to 84 months. Genetic data were collected at 72 months. Observed parenting was positively associated with initial levels of children's ego-resiliency. Furthermore, although individual genetic variants of the serotonin transporter gene (LPR, STin2) were not associated with ego-resiliency, the S10 haplotype (that combines information from these two variants) was negatively associated with initial levels of ego-resiliency. Both parenting and serotonin genetic variation uniquely predicted children's ego-resiliency, suggesting an additive effect of genetic and parental factors.
Review of Social Development 07/2013; DOI:10.1111/sode.12041 · 1.56 Impact Factor
"Compared to the allele L (long), the presence of the allele S (short) is associated with reduced transcriptional activity and lower level of gene expression, lower levels of 5-HT uptake, and anxiety-related traits. Lesch et al. (1996); Hanna et al. (1998); Courtet et al. (2001) The allele S may contribute to the background of violent suicide (allele S vs. allele L: OR02.08, "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suicide is thought to result from the harmful interaction of multiple factors that have social, environmental, neurobiological, and genetic backgrounds. Recent studies have suggested that genetic predisposition to suicidal behavior may be independent of the risk of suicide associated to mental disorders, such as affective disorders, schizophrenia, or alcohol dependence. Given the suicidal behavior heterogeneity and its hereditary complexity, the need to find demonstrable intermediate phenotypes that may make it possible to establish links between genes and suicide behaviors (endophenotypes) seems to be necessary. The main objective of this review was to consider the candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behaviors. Due to the recent advances in neuroimaging, we also characterize brain regions implicated in vulnerability to suicide behavior that are influenced by gene polymorphisms associated with suicidal behavior.