Characterization of a 200-kDa diatom protein that is specifically associated with a silica-based substructure of the cell wall.
ABSTRACT The cell wall of a diatom is made up of a silica-based scaffold and organic macromolecules. Proteins located in the cell wall are believed to control morphogenesis of the species-specific silica structures of the scaffold. However, data that correlate distinct silica elements and specific proteins within the diatom cell wall have not been reported. Here, the cell wall protein HEP200 (200-kDa HF-extractable protein) from the diatom Cylinidrotheca fusiformis is identified and characterized. HEP200 is tightly associated with a substructure of the silica scaffold. It is a member of a new protein family, of which two more members are identified. Each member displays the same bipartite structure. The N-terminal part consists of a variable number of a repeated sequence motif (PSCD domain), whereas the C-terminal part is unique. Immunolocalization experiments revealed the arrangement of different proteins within the cell wall. Frustulins, a previously described group of glycoproteins, constitute the outer coat of the cell wall and exhibit a ubiquitous distribution. In contrast, HEP200 is specifically located at a subset of about six silica strips in intact cell walls, shielded by frustulins. This study therefore identifies a diatom cell wall protein (HEP200) that is associated with a distinct substructure of the silica scaffold.
Article: Calcification and silicification: a comparative survey of the early stages of biomineralization.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Most of the studies on biomineralization have focused on calcification and silicification, the two systems that predominate in nature in the construction of skeletal or integumental hard tissues. They have, however, been studied separately, as if they were completely distinct processes, in spite of their several points of contact, especially as far as the organic-inorganic relationships during the early mineralization stages are concerned. A very tight association of the inorganic substance with organic macromolecules, in fact, initially characterizes both systems. Although the mechanism of biomineralization remains elusive, a number of old and new findings, which have been taken into account in this review, support the view that, both in calcification and in silicification, genetically controlled organic macromolecules induce the formation of composite, organic-inorganic nanoparticles, behave as templates for the subsequent assemblage of the nanoparticles into micro- to macroarchitectures of complex pattern, and, eventually, are mostly reabsorbed. There are still many gaps left in our knowledge of this process. Comparative studies of the two biomineralization systems may help to fill them.Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 04/2009; 27(3):255-64. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Short review of the substances involved in biomineralization.Proceedings of the Tomsk State University. 01/2010; 275:185-189.
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ABSTRACT: Diatoms produce diverse three-dimensional structures that, due to their exponential rate of growth, may be of use in the manufacture of components for nanotechnology as an alternative to present linear lithographic techniques. Vapor replacement of the silicon permits the conversion of diatom silica valves and other structures to metal/ceramics, with no loss of structure. The literature on diatom nanotechnology is reviewed, along with suggestions on how diatomists might enhance this emerging technology. There is a need for a systematics based catalog of parts (via genomics technologies), improved diatom culture techniques, better understanding of the mechanisms of diatom morphogenesis and motility, and genetic manipulation, mutagenesis, and selection, as via the chemostat-like compustat. Given the self-motility of raphid diatoms, they could form the basis for industrially useful nanobots.Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 02/2005; 5(1):35-40. · 1.56 Impact Factor