[Abdominal complications after heart surgery interventions].
ABSTRACT Risk factors of abdominal complications after cardiac surgery are largely unknown. We undertook this study to determine different types of abdominal complications after cardiac surgery and to identify patients at risk.
3312 adult patients were operated between Jan. 91 and Oct. 95 (2352 males, 960 females, 62.6 +/- 0.18y). We included all patients who suffered from abdominal complications within 30 days postoperatively.
Abdominal complications are rare after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (1.4%), but they are associated with high mortality (14.5%) in our department. Abdominal complications like paralytic ileus (43.8%), erosive gastritis (22.9%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (18.8%) are more often, compared with acute cholecystitis (14.5%), acute pancreatitis (8.3%) and intestinal ischemia (19.5%). Patients with intestinal ischemia are at high risk and do have a high mortality (83%). Abdominal complications can be found more often in connection with prolonged myocardial ischemia and valve replacement or combined operations. Prediction of complications on the basis of anamnestic data alone was not possible.
Abdominal complications after cardiac surgery, especially intestinal ischaemia, are life-threatening. Prediction of abdominal complications is impossible. We have to concentrate on an early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention to lower mortality. A close cooperation between cardiac and general surgeons is mandatory for a successful treatment of life-threatening abdominal complications such as intestinal ischemia.
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ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis can develop in patients with shock due to the underlying diseases, surgical interventions or because of severe hypoperfusion. The aim of our work was to study the histological alterations of the pancreas in patients dying after cardiogenic, hypovolemic or septic shock, to demonstrate the presence and severity of pancreatic injury. We performed a retrospective study which included patients who died and who were autopsied after different types of shock, hospitalized between 2007-2009 in general and cardiac intensive care units. We excluded the patients with known pancreatic diseases. From 223 patients included in our study 39 presented necrotising hemorrhagic alteration of the pancreatic tissue. There were no differences in histological and immunohistochemical findings between the different etiopathogenetic types of shock. None of the patients had characteristic clinical signs for acute pancreatitis. The digestive symptoms, they presented, could be related to the underlying disease or to postoperative state. The common findings in these patients were prolonged and severe hypotension, associated renal dysfunction, leucocytosis, hyperglycemia and hypocalcemia. Pancreatitis can occur in patients with shock, due to prolonged hypoperfusion of the pancreas. It is difficult to diagnose it because clinical signs are altered due to severity of underlying disease or analgo-sedation commonly used in intensive care. We therefore recommend in patients with shock to consider the possible development of ischemic pancreatitis for prompt and efficient treatment.Pathology & Oncology Research 04/2012; 18(4):977-81. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Delayed diagnosis of intraabdominal pathology in the intensive care unit (ICU) increases rates of morbidity and mortality. Intraabdominal pathologies are usually identified through presenting symptoms, clinical signs, and laboratory and radiological results; however, these could also delay diagnosis because of inconclusive laboratory tests or imaging results, or the inability to safely transfer a patient to the radiology room. In the current study we evaluated the safety and accuracy of bedside diagnostic laparoscopy to confirm the presence of intraabdominal pathology in an ICU setting. This retrospective study, carried out between January 2006 and June 2008, evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of bedside diagnostic laparoscopy performed on patients with a suspicion of ongoing intraabdominal pathology. Clinical indications for bedside diagnostic laparoscopy were: ultrasonography (US) images of gallbladder distension or wall thickening of more than 3 to 4 mm, with or without pericholecystic fluid; elevation of laboratory tests (bilirubin, transaminases, myoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, gamma-glutamyltransferase); high level of lactate/metabolic acidosis; CT images inconclusive for intraabdominal pathology; or inability to perform a CT scan. Patients did not undergo bedside diagnostic laparoscopy if they presented clear indications for open surgery, coagulopathy, abdominal wall infection or high intraabdominal pressure. Thirty-two patients underwent bedside diagnostic laparoscopy (Visiport Plus, Autosuture, US), 14 of whom had been admitted to the ICU for major trauma, 12 for sepsis of unknown origin and 6 for complications after cardiac surgery. The procedure was performed on an average of eight days after ICU admission (95% confidence interval = 5 to 15 days) and mean procedure duration was 40 minutes. None of the procedures resulted in complications. Bedside diagnostic laparoscopy was diagnostic for intraabdominal pathology in 15 patients, who subsequently underwent surgery, except in two cases of diffuse gut hypoperfusion. Diagnosis of cholecystitis was obtained in seven cases: two were treated with laparotomic cholecystectomy and five with percutaneous gallbladder drainage positioning. Bedside diagnostic laparoscopy represents a safe and accurate technique for diagnosing intraabdominal pathology in an ICU setting and should be taken into consideration when patient transfer to radiology or the operating room is considered unsafe, or when routine radiological examinations are not conclusive enough to reach a definite diagnosis.Critical care (London, England) 02/2009; 13(1):R25. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic experiences on the patients who suffered abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB). METHODS: A total of 2349 consecutive patients submitted to cardiovascular surgery with CPB in our hospital from Jan 2004 to Dec 2010 were involved. The clinical data of any abdominal complication, including its incidence, characters, relative risks, diagnostic measures, medical or surgical management and mortality, was retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of all the patients, 33(1.4%) developed abdominal complications postoperatively, including 11(33.3%) cases of paralytic ileus, 9(27.3%) of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, 2(6.1%) of gastroduodenal ulcer perforation, 2(6.1%) of acute calculus cholecystitis, 3(9.1%) of acute acalculus cholecystitis, 4(12.1%) of hepatic dysfunction and 2(6.1%) of ischemia bowel diseases. Of the 33 patients, 26 (78.8%) accepted medical treatment and 7 (21.2%) underwent subsequent surgical intervention. There were 5(15.2%) deaths in this series, which was significantly higher than the overall mortality (2.7%). Positive history of peptic ulcer, advanced ages, bad heart function, preoperative IABP support, prolonged CPB time, low cardiac output and prolonged mechanical ventilation are the risk factors of abdominal complications. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with CPB have a low incidence but a higher mortality. Early detection and prompt appropriate intervention are essential for the outcome of the patients.Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 10/2012; 7(1):108. · 0.90 Impact Factor