Modulation of respiratory rhythm by 5-HT in the brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rat.
ABSTRACT Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on inspiration-related nerve activity and membrane potential of respiratory neurons in the ventrolateral medulla were studied in brainstem-spinal cord preparations isolated from newborn rats. Bath application of 5-100 microM 5-HT induced a biphasic response in inspiratory nerve activity: a transient increase in respiratory frequency followed by a decrease in the rate of discharge. The excitatory effect of 5-HT was particularly prominent in preparations with a respiratory rate of less than 3 min-1, whereas the inhibitory effect was more pronounced in preparations with a higher respiratory rate. In pre-inspiratory (Pre-I) and inspiratory (Insp) neurons, 20 microM 5-HT induced a membrane depolarization of up to 10 mV accompanied by a significant decrease in the input resistance. Membrane depolarization by 5-HT was also evident in the presence of tetrodotoxin. In Pre-I neurons, 5-HT caused an increase in the burst rate, which was followed by a decrease in the intraburst firing frequency and burst amplitude, although the burst rate remained high. The burst rate in Insp neurons first increased and subsequently decreased without significant change in the intraburst firing frequency. Simultaneous intra- and extracellular recordings (in the contralateral medulla) of Pre-I/Pre-I neuron or Pre-I/Insp neuron pairs revealed that 5-HT disturbed the correlation between these neuron bursts. Increase in the respiratory rate induced by 20 microM 5-HT was completely blocked by pretreatment (5-15 min) with 5 microM ketanserin or 1 microM methysergide, but not by 10 microM propranolol. None of these antagonists blocked the inhibitory effects of 5-HT. A 5-HT2 agonist, 1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI, 10-100 microM) increased the respiratory rate. Perfusion with a 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT, 20-100 microM) induced an increase or a decrease in the respiratory rate. A 5-HT2C agonist, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (m-CPP, 2-10 microM) induced an initial decrease in the respiratory rate followed by a further long- lasting decrease. Burst activity of Pre-I neurons was suppressed upon administration of 10 microM m-CPP and enhanced with 20 microM DOI. The results suggest that changes in the bursting properties of Pre-I and Insp neurons induced by 5-HT lead to modulation of the respiratory network, thus causing biphasic modulation of the respiratory rhythm. In addition to effects via 5-HT1A receptors, activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor subtypes might be involved in excitatory effects and inhibitory effects of 5-HT respectively.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The GABAergic system modulates respiratory activity and undergoes substantial changes during early life. Because this maturation process is sensitive to stress, we tested the hypothesis that gestational stress (GS) alters development of GABAergic modulation of respiratory control in rat pups. The respiratory responses to the selective GABAA receptor agonist muscimol were compared between pups born to dams subjected to GS (bright light and predator odor; 20min/day from G9 to G19) or maintained under standard (control) conditions. Respiratory activity was measured on 1 and 4 days old pups of both sexes using in vivo (whole body plethysmography) and in vitro (isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation) approaches. In intact pups, muscimol injection (0.75mg/kg; i.p.) depressed minute ventilation; this response was less in GS pups, and at P4, muscimol augmented minute ventilation in GS females. Bath application of muscimol (0.01 - 0.5μM) onto brainstem preparations decreased inspiratory (C4) burst frequency and amplitude in a dose-dependent manner; the responsiveness decreased with age. However, GS had limited effects on these results. We conclude that the results obtained in vivo are consistent with our hypothesis and show that GS delays maturation of GABAergic modulation of respiratory activity. The differences in the results observed between experimental approaches (in vivo versus in vitro) indicate that the effect of prenatal stress on maturation of GABAergic modulation of respiratory control mainly affects the peripheral/metabolic components of the respiratory control system.Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 06/2014; · 2.05 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In intact mammals, lung inflation during inspiration terminates inspiration (Breuer-Hering inspiratory reflex, BHI) and the presence of lung afferents increases respiratory frequency. To test whether these responses could be obtained in vitro, a neonate rat brain stem/spinal cord preparation retaining the lungs and their vagal innervation was used. It was found that 1) the BHI could be replicated in vitro, 2) phasic lung inflation during inspiration caused increased respiratory frequency with declining efficacy as inflation delay increased, and 3) increased respiratory frequency did not require inspiratory shortening.Journal of Neurophysiology 06/2000; 83(5):3165-8. · 3.30 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A subset of preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) and somatostatin peptide (SST)-expressing neurons are necessary for breathing in adult rats, in vivo. Their developmental origins and relationship to other preBötC glutamatergic neurons are unknown. Here we show, in mice, that the "core" of preBötC SST(+)/NK1R(+)/SST 2a receptor(+) (SST2aR) neurons, are derived from Dbx1-expressing progenitors. We also show that Dbx1-derived neurons heterogeneously coexpress NK1R and SST2aR within and beyond the borders of preBötC. More striking, we find that nearly all non-catecholaminergic glutamatergic neurons of the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) are also Dbx1 derived. PreBötC SST(+) neurons are born between E9.5 and E11.5 in the same proportion as non-SST-expressing neurons. Additionally, preBötC Dbx1 neurons are respiratory modulated and show an early inspiratory phase of firing in rhythmically active slice preparations. Loss of Dbx1 eliminates all glutamatergic neurons from the respiratory VLM including preBötC NK1R(+)/SST(+) neurons. Dbx1 mutant mice do not express any spontaneous respiratory behaviors in vivo. Moreover, they do not generate rhythmic inspiratory activity in isolated en bloc preparations even after acidic or serotonergic stimulation. These data indicate that preBötC core neurons represent a subset of a larger, more heterogeneous population of VLM Dbx1-derived neurons. These data indicate that Dbx1-derived neurons are essential for the expression and, we hypothesize, are responsible for the generation of respiratory behavior both in vitro and in vivo.Journal of Neuroscience 11/2010; 30(44):14883-95. · 6.91 Impact Factor