Modulation of respiratory rhythm by 5-HT in the brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rat.
ABSTRACT Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on inspiration-related nerve activity and membrane potential of respiratory neurons in the ventrolateral medulla were studied in brainstem-spinal cord preparations isolated from newborn rats. Bath application of 5-100 microM 5-HT induced a biphasic response in inspiratory nerve activity: a transient increase in respiratory frequency followed by a decrease in the rate of discharge. The excitatory effect of 5-HT was particularly prominent in preparations with a respiratory rate of less than 3 min-1, whereas the inhibitory effect was more pronounced in preparations with a higher respiratory rate. In pre-inspiratory (Pre-I) and inspiratory (Insp) neurons, 20 microM 5-HT induced a membrane depolarization of up to 10 mV accompanied by a significant decrease in the input resistance. Membrane depolarization by 5-HT was also evident in the presence of tetrodotoxin. In Pre-I neurons, 5-HT caused an increase in the burst rate, which was followed by a decrease in the intraburst firing frequency and burst amplitude, although the burst rate remained high. The burst rate in Insp neurons first increased and subsequently decreased without significant change in the intraburst firing frequency. Simultaneous intra- and extracellular recordings (in the contralateral medulla) of Pre-I/Pre-I neuron or Pre-I/Insp neuron pairs revealed that 5-HT disturbed the correlation between these neuron bursts. Increase in the respiratory rate induced by 20 microM 5-HT was completely blocked by pretreatment (5-15 min) with 5 microM ketanserin or 1 microM methysergide, but not by 10 microM propranolol. None of these antagonists blocked the inhibitory effects of 5-HT. A 5-HT2 agonist, 1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI, 10-100 microM) increased the respiratory rate. Perfusion with a 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT, 20-100 microM) induced an increase or a decrease in the respiratory rate. A 5-HT2C agonist, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (m-CPP, 2-10 microM) induced an initial decrease in the respiratory rate followed by a further long- lasting decrease. Burst activity of Pre-I neurons was suppressed upon administration of 10 microM m-CPP and enhanced with 20 microM DOI. The results suggest that changes in the bursting properties of Pre-I and Insp neurons induced by 5-HT lead to modulation of the respiratory network, thus causing biphasic modulation of the respiratory rhythm. In addition to effects via 5-HT1A receptors, activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor subtypes might be involved in excitatory effects and inhibitory effects of 5-HT respectively.
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ABSTRACT: The current classification for 5-HT2 receptors accommodates three subtypes. In addition to the originally defined 5-HT2 receptor, sanctuary is now provided for the structurally related 5-HT1C receptor (now 5-HT2C) and at least one atypical 5-HT receptor subtype. The strong functional union of this family is reflected in the paucity of ligands that will discriminate between its subtypes and prompts some re-evaluation of the activities of compounds which may now be regarded as nonselective for the receptor subtypes in this class. In this article, Gordon Baxter and colleagues examine the pharmacology of both officially recognized and atypical 5-HT2 receptor subtypes. A number of novel selective agents are highlighted, some of which may prove useful for 5-HT2 receptor classification and, ultimately, clarify the mechanistic basis for current and future therapeutic strategies which target this receptor family.Trends in Pharmacological Sciences - TRENDS PHARMACOL SCI. 01/1995; 16(3):105-110.
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ABSTRACT: Involvement of cAMP in the generation of respiratory rhythm was studied in newborn rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations. The respiratory rhythm was monitored by C4 inspiratory activity and/or pre-inspiratory (Pre-I) activity of neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla; previously suggested to be primary rhythm generating neurons which have pacemaker properties. The effects of four cAMP-increasing agents (forskolin, IBMX, Db-cAMP, and 8-Br-cAMP) on this neuronal activity were examined. Perfusion with forskolin (3–10 μM) increased the burst rate of C4 inspiratory activity in 20 of 32 preparations, but in 8 of those the increase was preceded by transient depression. The facilitation of the respiratory rhythm was greater whenever the burst rate before forskolin treatment was lower. The Pre-I neuron burst rate, which was recorded together with C4 activity, predominantly increased with forskolin treatment. The effects of IBMX, Db-cAMP and 8-Br-cAMP were similar to those of forskolin, but they were slightly less potent. Long-lasting depression of the respiratory rhythm (C4 and Pre-I activity) by clonidine, which might decrease intracellular cAMP level viaμ2-receptors, was reversed by forskolin. To investigate the direct effects of the cAMP-increasing agents on Pre-I neurons, Pre-I activity was isolated by blocking the chemical synaptic transmission by incubation in a low Ca solution (0.2 mM Ca2+, 5 mM Mg2+). Forskolin (5–10 μM), IBMX (5–10 μM), Db-cAMP (0.2–0.4 mM), and 8-Br-cAMP (0.4–0.75 mM) all enhanced the burst rate of isolated Pre-I neurons. Results suggest that cAMP is important in respiratory rhythm generation; this may be due to its regulation of the intrinsic burst generating properties of Pre-I neurons.Brain Research 04/1993; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Newborn rat respiratory activity was recorded on hypoglossal nerve and ventral cervical roots during in vitro experiments performed on superfused brainstem spinal cord preparations. The addition of serotonin (5-HT) to the bathing medium increased the respiratory frequency and selectively depressed the hypoglossal activity. Any decreases in the amplitude of cervical recordings were always restricted and reversible, whereas the hypoglossal activity was abolished. Furthermore, on cervical roots, 5-HT induced a tonic activity superimposed on the respiratory one, which was never observed with the hypoglossal nerve. When 5-HT was applied on isolated hemispinal cord, a tonic activity could still be elicited. These results indicate that serotonin (i) modulates the activity of neurons involved in the generation of respiratory rhythm, (ii) depresses the activity of hypoglossal motoneurons, and (iii) evokes tonic activity in cervical motoneurons, probably as the result of direct spinal effects.Neuroscience Letters 04/1990; 111(1-2):127-32. · 2.03 Impact Factor