Gait analysis during treadmill and overground locomotion in children and adults.
ABSTRACT Gait analysis on the treadmill and in the overground condition is used both in scientific approaches for investigating the neuronal organisation and ontogenetic development of locomotion and in a variety of clinical applications. We investigated the differences between overground and treadmill locomotion (at identical gait velocity) in 12 adults and 14 children (6-7 years old). During treadmill locomotion the step frequency increased by 7% in adults and 10% in children compared to overground walking, whereas the stride length and the stance phase of the walking cycle decreased. The swing phase, however, increased significantly by 5% in adults and remained unchanged in children. Balance-related gait parameters such as the step width and foot rotation angles increased during treadmill locomotion. The reduction of the step length was found to be stable after 10 min of treadmill walking in most subjects. With regard to the shifted phases of the walking cycle and the changed balance related gait parameters in the treadmill condition, we assume a different modulation of the central pattern generator in treadmill walking, due to a changed afferent input. Regarding the pronounced differences between overground and treadmill walking in children, it is discussed whether the systems generating and integrating different modulations of locomotion into a stable movement pattern have reached full capacity in 6-7 year old children.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Locomotion of children and adults with a visual impairment (ages 1-44, n = 28) was compared to that of age-related individuals with normal vision (n = 60). Participants walked barefoot at preferred speed while their gait was recorded by a Vicon(®) system. Walking speed, heading angle, step frequency, stride length, step width, stance phase duration and double support time were determined. Differences between groups, relationships with age and possible interaction effects were investigated. With increasing age overall improvements in gait parameters are observed. Differences between groups were a slower walking speed, a shorter stride length, a prolonged duration of stance and of double support in the individuals with a visual impairment. These may be considered either as adaptations to balance problems or as strategies to allow to foot to probe the ground.Research in developmental disabilities 01/2011; 32(6):2069-74. · 4.41 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The treadmill is a commonly used means of testing and training patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. There is growing interest in the use of the treadmill also for rehabilitation of patients with orthopaedic and neurological diseases. Commercially available treadmills show wide differences in terms of structure and function that have a direct impact on the specific rehabilitation protocols. The aims of this paper are: a) to briefly review the physiology and biomechanics of treadmill exercise as compared to overground walking; b) to point out the technical specifications of treadmills suitable for rehabilitation settings; c) to provide guidelines for treadmill selection in the different categories of rehabilitation patients. First, the different physiological and biomechanical characteristics of walking on a treadmill and overground are discussed. Uphill and downhill walking as well as backward walking are also presented together with the spin-offs for rehabilitation practice. Then, the technical features of treadmills (treadbelt, frame, bars, deck, rollers, shock absorption, elevation motor, drive motor, flywheel, display) are described and the specific requisites for the different patient categories undergoing rehabilitation are discussed in detail. Finally, guidelines and a flow-chart for identifying the main technical requisites for appropriate treadmill selection in the different disabilities are provided. A summary table of the technical specifications of the commercially available rehabilitation treadmills is also included.Giornale italiano di medicina del lavoro ed ergonomia 30(2):169-77.