Gait analysis during treadmill and overground locomotion in children and adults

Department of Physiology, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany.
Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 01/1998; 105(6):490-7. DOI: 10.1016/S0924-980X(97)00055-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Gait analysis on the treadmill and in the overground condition is used both in scientific approaches for investigating the neuronal organisation and ontogenetic development of locomotion and in a variety of clinical applications. We investigated the differences between overground and treadmill locomotion (at identical gait velocity) in 12 adults and 14 children (6-7 years old). During treadmill locomotion the step frequency increased by 7% in adults and 10% in children compared to overground walking, whereas the stride length and the stance phase of the walking cycle decreased. The swing phase, however, increased significantly by 5% in adults and remained unchanged in children. Balance-related gait parameters such as the step width and foot rotation angles increased during treadmill locomotion. The reduction of the step length was found to be stable after 10 min of treadmill walking in most subjects. With regard to the shifted phases of the walking cycle and the changed balance related gait parameters in the treadmill condition, we assume a different modulation of the central pattern generator in treadmill walking, due to a changed afferent input. Regarding the pronounced differences between overground and treadmill walking in children, it is discussed whether the systems generating and integrating different modulations of locomotion into a stable movement pattern have reached full capacity in 6-7 year old children.

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    • "Treadmill walking allows for continuous walking while the participant remains in a limited movement space. However, walking patterns on treadmills may differ from that of over-ground walking [16]. In a recent study [12], the accuracy of the Kinect sensor in the measurement of knee and hip joint angles was examined and the results indicated that, while the Kinect sensor can provide an approximate joint trajectory, subtle changes in the joint angles cannot be well measured. "
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    ABSTRACT: The measurement of gait parameters normally requires motion tracking systems combined with force plates, which limits the measurement to laboratory settings. In some recent studies, the possibility of using the portable, low cost, and marker-less Microsoft Kinect™ sensor to measure gait parameters on over-ground walking has been examined. The current study further examined the accuracy level of the Kinect sensor for assessment of various gait parameters during treadmill walking under different walking speeds. Twenty healthy participants walked on the treadmill and their full body kinematics data were measured by a Kinect sensor and a motion tracking system, concurrently. Spatiotemporal gait parameters and knee and hip joint angles were extracted from the two devices and were compared. The results showed that the accuracy levels when using the Kinect sensor varied across the gait parameters. Average heel strike frame errors were 0.18 and 0.30 frames for the right and left foot, respectively, while average toe off frame errors were -2.25 and -2.61 frames, respectively, across all participants and all walking speeds. The temporal gait parameters based purely on heel strike have less error than the temporal gait parameters based on toe off. The Kinect sensor can follow the trend of the joint trajectories for the knee and hip joints, though there was substantial error in magnitudes. The walking speed was also found to significantly affect the identified timing of toe off. The results of the study suggest that the Kinect sensor may be used as an alternative device to measure some gait parameters for treadmill walking, depending on the desired accuracy level. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Gait & posture 05/2015; 34(2). DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.05.002 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    • "Gait consists of a series of strides that naturally and rhythmically vary from stride-to-stride. While this phenomenon has been known for over a century [1], it has often been relegated as imprecise motor control—a position supported by numerous clinical populations that demonstrate an increase in variability in stride time intervals compared to healthy adults [2], [3], [4]. However, research over the past three decades examining the properties of adaptive and functional biological systems has challenged the traditional view of stride interval variability by showing that healthy and clinical populations may present with similar variability in their rhythms, despite having different functional behaviors [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous work has shown that fractal patterns in gait can be altered by entraining to a fractal stimulus. However, little is understood about how long those patterns are retained or which factors may influence stronger entrainment or retention. In experiment one, participants walked on a treadmill for 45 continuous minutes, which was separated into three phases. The first 15 minutes (pre-synchronization phase) consisted of walking without a fractal stimulus, the second 15 minutes consisted of walking while entraining to a fractal visual stimulus (synchronization phase), and the last 15 minutes (post-synchronization phase) consisted of walking without the stimulus to determine if the patterns adopted from the stimulus were retained. Fractal gait patterns were strengthened during the synchronization phase and were retained in the post-synchronization phase. In experiment two, similar methods were used to compare a continuous fractal stimulus to a discrete fractal stimulus to determine which stimulus type led to more persistent fractal gait patterns in the synchronization and post-synchronization (i.e., retention) phases. Both stimulus types led to equally persistent patterns in the synchronization phase, but only the discrete fractal stimulus led to retention of the patterns. The results add to the growing body of literature showing that fractal gait patterns can be manipulated in a predictable manner. Further, our results add to the literature by showing that the newly adopted gait patterns are retained for up to 15 minutes after entrainment and showed that a discrete visual stimulus is a better method to influence retention.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106755. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106755 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "We chose to collect our data when dogs were walking on a treadmill in order to allow us to control walking speed for individual dogs throughout testing [15,16]. It is reported that people walk differently on a treadmill versus the open field [21], and so data on coordination in normal dogs walking on a treadmill was collected at the start of the study. The use of support for non-ambulatory dogs enables the investigator to quantify limb movements in even the most severely affected animals and has been shown not to affect gait patterns in normal dogs [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: An inexpensive method of generating continuous data on hind limb function in dogs with spinal cord injury is needed to facilitate multicentre clinical trials. This study aimed to define normal fore limb, hind limb coordination in dogs walking on a treadmill and then to determine whether reliable data could be generated on the frequency of hind limb stepping and the frequency of coordinated stepping in dogs with a wide range of severities of thoracolumbar spinal cord injury. Sixty-nine neurologically normal dogs of different body sizes including seven lame dogs were videotaped walking on the treadmill without prior training and all used the lateral gait of right fore, left hind, left fore, right hind (RF-LH-LF-RH). Severely paraparetic dogs were able to walk on the treadmill for a minimum of 75 seconds, scoring of which generated data representative of function in animals with extremely variable gaits. Fifty consecutive stepping cycles were scored by three observers in 18 dogs with a wide range of disability due to acute thoracolumbar spinal cord injury using a stepping score (hind limb steps/fore limb steps x100), and a coordination score (coordinated hind limb steps/total hind limb steps x100). Dogs were also scored using a previously validated ordinal open field score (OFS). Inter- and intraobserver agreement was high as assessed with Cronbach's alpha test for internal reliability. The stepping and coordination scores were significantly correlated to each other and to the OFS. Dogs with naturally occurring spinal cord injury can walk on a treadmill without prior training and their hind limb function can be scored reliably using a stepping score and coordination score. The only requirements for data acquisition are a treadmill and appropriately positioned video camera and so the system can be used in multicentre clinical trials to generate continuous data on neurologic recovery in dogs.
    BMC Veterinary Research 03/2014; 10(1):58. DOI:10.1186/1746-6148-10-58 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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