Magnetic resonance studies of intramuscular interferon beta-1a for relapsing multiple sclerosis. The Multiple Sclerosis Collaborative Research Group.
ABSTRACT The Multiple Sclerosis Collaborative Research Group trial was a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, phase III, placebo-controlled study of interferon beta-1a (IFNbeta-1a; AVONEX) in relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Initial magnetic resonance imaging results have been published; this report provides additional results. Treatment with IFNbeta-1a, 30 microg once weekly by intramuscular injection, resulted in a significant decrease in the number of new, enlarging, and new plus enlarging T2 lesions over 2 years. The median increase in T2 lesion volume in placebo and IFNbeta-1a patients was 455 and 152 mm3, respectively, at 1 year and 1,410 and 628 mm3 at 2 years, although the treatment group differences did not reach statistical significance. For active patients, defined as those with gadolinium enhancement at baseline, the median change in T2 lesion volume in placebo and IFNbeta-1a patients was 1,578 and -12 mm3 and 2,980 and 1,285 mm3 at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Except for a minimal correlation of 0.30 between relapse rate and the number of gadolinium-enhanced lesions, correlations between MR and clinical measures at baseline and throughout the study were in general poor. Once weekly intramuscular IFNbeta-1a appears to impede the development of multiple sclerosis lesions at an early stage and has a favorable impact on the long-term sequelae of these inflammatory events as indicated by the slowed accumulation of T2 lesions.
Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis 05/1999; 3(2). DOI:10.1046/j.1526-0968.1999.00149.x
Article: Human freedom and the brain.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Freedom of will does exist, it is self-leadership of man based on reason and ethos. Evidence comes from truth. Determinism cannot be proved since if you try, you mean to prove a truth; but there is no truth without freedom. By contrast for freedom there are many pieces of evidence e.g. science, arts, technology. Freedom utilizes creative abstract thinking with phantasy. Freedom is graded, limited, based on nature, but not developed without good will. We perceive reliably freedom by self-consciousness and in other persons as long as we are sober. Freedom needs intelligence, but is more, it is a creative and moral virtue. The basis for freedom is phylogenesis and culture, in the individual learning and experimenting. Factors in the becoming of freedom are not only genes and environment but also self-discipline. But the creativity of free will is dangerous. Man therefore needs morale. Drives and feelings become humanized, cultural interests are developed. There is a humane nobility from long good will.Acta Neuropsychiatrica 06/2009; 21 Suppl 2:1-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-5215.2009.00386.x · 0.64 Impact Factor