Distribution of dopamine transporters in basal ganglia of cerebellar ataxic mice by [I-125]RTI-121 quantitative autoradiography
ABSTRACT Dopamine (DA) uptake sites, or transporters, were examined with [125I]RTI-121 in mutant mice that exhibit motor control deficits, namely weaver, lurcher and dystonia musculorum. In lurcher mice, the distribution of [125I]RTI-121 binding was similar to controls, except for a decrease in the subthalamic nucleus. For dystonia musculorum mice, the labelling presented no differences between controls and mutants, except for decreases in the dorsal half of caudal neostriatum and in the ventral tegmental area. Moreover, in this mutant the left rostral neostriatum DA transporters were reduced, when compared to the right counterpart. In weaver heterozygote (wv/+) mice, the distribution and density gradients of [125I]RTI-121 labelling were similar as in their controls, except in caudal neostriatum, where binding was slightly higher. In contrast, the weaver homozygote (wv/wv) showed important decreases in labelling of the dorsal quadrant of rostral neostriatum as well as of the dorsal half of caudal neostriatum, where the reductions of binding densities were of 65% to 70%, respectively. There were also slight decreases in [125I]RTI-121 binding in olfactory tubercles as well as in subthalamic nucleus, but only in wv/wv mice. In substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area of wv/wv mice the labelling was lower; however, while the 60% decrease in labelling in substantia nigra was highly significant, the 30% reduction in ventral tegmental area did not attain statistical significance. In summary, in the ataxic neurological mutant mice studied, important reductions of DA transporters were documented only for the weaver mice, the cerebellar mutant presenting, besides its cerebellar pathology, a known degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. The results rule out major alterations of the central DA systems in lurcher and dystonia musculorum, and are compatible with the hypothesis that the dopaminergic abnormalities of weaver mutants are not secondary to cerebellar atrophy, but may be a direct consequence of the abnormal weaver gene expressed by DA neurons leading to their apoptotic death.
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ABSTRACT: 5-APB, commonly marketed as 'benzofury' is a new psychoactive substance and erstwhile 'legal high' which has been implicated in 10 recent drug-related deaths in the UK. This drug was available on the internet and in 'head shops' and was one of the most commonly sold legal highs up until its recent UK temporary ban (UK Home Office). Despite its prominence, very little is known about its pharmacology. This study was undertaken to examine the pharmacology of 5-APB in vitro. We hypothesized that 5-APB would activate the dopamine and 5-HT systems which may underlie its putative stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. Autoradiographic studies showed that 5-APB displaced both [(125)I]RTI-121 and [(3)H]ketanserin from rat brain tissue suggesting affinity at the dopamine transporter and 5-HT2 receptor sites respectively. Voltammetric studies in rat accumbens brain slices revealed that 5-APB slowed dopamine reuptake, and at high concentrations caused reverse transport of dopamine. 5-APB also caused vasoconstriction of rat aorta, an effect antagonized by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin, and caused contraction of rat stomach fundus, which was reversed by the 5-HT2B receptor antagonist RS-127445. These data show that 5-APB interacts with the dopamine transporter and is an agonist at the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in the rat. Thus 5-APB's pharmacology is consistent with it having both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties. In addition, 5-APB's activity at the 5-HT2B receptor may cause cardiotoxicity.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 09/2013; 48. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.08.013 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mephedrone, an erstwhile "legal high", and some non-abused cathinones (ethcathinone, diethylpropion and bupropion) were tested for stimulant effects in vitro, through assessing their abilities to increase basal and electrically evoked dopamine efflux in rat accumbens brain slices, and compared with cocaine and amphetamine. We also tested mephedrone against cocaine in a dopamine transporter binding study. Dopamine efflux was electrically evoked and recorded using voltammetry in the rat accumbens core. We constructed concentration response curves for these cathinones for effects on basal dopamine levels; peak efflux after local electrical stimulation and the time-constant of the dopamine decay phase, an index of dopamine reuptake. We also examined competition between mephedrone or cocaine and [(125)I]RTI121 at the dopamine transporter. Mephedrone was less potent than cocaine at displacing [(125)I]RTI121. Mephedrone and amphetamine increased basal levels of dopamine in the absence of electrical stimulation. Cocaine, bupropion, diethylpropion and ethcathinone all increased the peak dopamine efflux after electrical stimulation and slowed dopamine reuptake. Cocaine was more potent than bupropion and ethcathinone, while diethylpropion was least potent. Notably, cocaine had the fastest onset of action. These data suggest that, with respect to dopamine efflux, mephedrone is more similar to amphetamine than cocaine. These findings also show that cocaine was more potent than bupropion and ethcathinone while diethylpropion was least potent. Mephedrone's binding to the dopamine transporter is consistent with stimulant effects but its potency was lower than that of cocaine. These findings confirm and further characterize stimulant properties of mephedrone and other cathinones in adolescent rat brain.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.04.009 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To date there is no validated, (18)F-labeled dopamine transporter (DAT) radiotracer with a rapid kinetic profile suitable for preclinical small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) studies in rodent models of human basal ganglia disease. Herein we report radiosynthesis and validation of the phenyltropane (18)F-FP-CMT. Dynamic PET recordings were obtained for (18)F-FP-CMT in six untreated rats, and six rats pretreated with the high-affinity DAT ligand GBR 12909; mean parametric maps of binding potential (BPND) relative to the cerebellum reference region, and maps of total distribution volume (VT) relative to the metabolite-corrected arterial input were produced. (18)F-FP-CMT BPND maps showed peak values of ∼4 in the striatum, versus ∼0.4 in the vicinity of the substantia nigra. Successive truncation of the PET recordings indicated that stable BPND estimates could be obtained with recordings lasting only 45 minutes, reflecting rapid kinetics of (18)F-FP-CMT. Pretreatment with GBR 12909 reduced the striatal binding by 72% to 76%. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed rapid metabolism of (18)F-FP-CMT to a single, non-brain penetrant hydrophilic metabolite. Total distribution of volume calculated relative to the metabolite-corrected arterial input was 4.4 mL/g in the cerebellum. The pharmacological selectivity of (18)F-FP-CMT, rapid kinetic profile, and lack of problematic metabolites constitute optimal properties for quantitation of DAT in rat, and may also predict applicability in human PET studies.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 9 April 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.63.Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 04/2014; DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.63 · 5.34 Impact Factor