Pooling urine samples for ligase chain reaction screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in asymptomatic women.
ABSTRACT The accuracy of pooling urine samples for the detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection by ligase chain reaction (LCR) was examined. A model was also developed to determine the number of samples to be pooled for optimal cost savings at various population prevalences. Estimated costs included technician time, laboratory consumables, and assay costs of testing pooled samples and retesting individual specimens from presumptive positive pools. Estimation of population prevalence based on the pooled LCR results was also applied. After individual urine specimens were processed, 568 specimens were pooled by 4 into 142 pools and another 520 specimens were pooled by 10 into 52 pools. For comparison, all 1,088 urine specimens were tested individually. The sample-to-cut-off ratio was lowered from 1.0 to 0.2 for pooled samples, after a pilot study which tested 148 samples pooled by 4 was conducted. The pooling algorithm was 100% (48 of 48) sensitive when samples were pooled by 4 and 98.4% (61 of 62) sensitive when samples were pooled by 10. Although 2.0% (2 of 99) of the negative pools of 4 and 7.1% (1 of 14) of the negative pools of 10 tested presumptive positive, all samples in these presumptive-positive pools were negative when retested individually, making the pooling algorithm 100% specific. In a population with 8% genital C. trachomatis prevalence, pooling by four would reduce costs by 39%. The model demonstrated that with a lower prevalence of 2%, pooling eight samples would reduce costs by 59%. Pooling urine samples for detection of C. trachomatis by LCR is sensitive, specific, and cost saving compared to testing individual samples.
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ABSTRACT: Ocular swabs from Tanzania were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and self-collected vaginal swabs collected through a home collection program, iwantthekit.org, were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and CT to evaluate Cepheid GeneXpert for the use of pooling multiple specimens before testing. GeneXpert shows to be a promising test for pooling.Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 11/2014; 81(2). DOI:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2014.11.010 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This report updates CDC's 2002 recommendations regarding screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections (CDC. Screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections-2002. MMWR 2002;51[No. RR-15]) and provides new recommendations regarding optimal specimen types, the use of tests to detect rectal and oropharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections, and circumstances when supplemental testing is indicated. The recommendations in this report are intended for use by clinical laboratory directors, laboratory staff, clinicians, and disease control personnel who must choose among the multiple available tests, establish standard operating procedures for collecting and processing specimens, interpret test results for laboratory reporting, and counsel and treat patients. The performance of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) with respect to overall sensitivity, specificity, and ease of specimen transport is better than that of any of the other tests available for the diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal infections. Laboratories should use NAATs to detect chlamydia and gonorrhea except in cases of child sexual assault involving boys and rectal and oropharyngeal infections in prepubescent girls and when evaluating a potential gonorrhea treatment failure, in which case culture and susceptibility testing might be required. NAATs that have been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections are recommended as screening or diagnostic tests because they have been evaluated in patients with and without symptoms. Maintaining the capability to culture for both N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in laboratories throughout the country is important because data are insufficient to recommend nonculture tests in cases of sexual assault in prepubescent boys and extragenital anatomic site exposure in prepubescent girls. N. gonorrhoeae culture is required to evaluate suspected cases of gonorrhea treatment failure and to monitor developing resistance to current treatment regimens. Chlamydia culture also should be maintained in some laboratories to monitor future changes in antibiotic susceptibility and to support surveillance and research activities such as detection of lymphogranuloma venereum or rare infections caused by variant or mutated C. trachomatis.MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 03/2014; 63(RR-02):1-19.
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ABSTRACT: Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility and validity of pooling urine samples for molecular diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion 08/2005; 57(4):548-554. · 0.31 Impact Factor