Dopamine transporter development in postnatal rat striatum: an autoradiographic study with [3H]WIN 35,428.
ABSTRACT The dopamine transporter mediates the reinforcing effects of cocaine, thus playing a central role in human cocaine addiction, and perhaps providing the mechanism for inducing the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure. This possibility has stimulated growing interest in the normal and abnormal development of this transporter. [3H]WIN 35,428 is a cocaine analog that is useful for studying the distribution and density of the dopamine transporter in striatum and other brain regions. The postnatal development of the dopamine transporter in the rat striatum was measured by quantitative autoradiography with [3H]WIN 35,428. Dopamine transporter levels were low at birth, increased through day 15, followed by much more rapid growth in late postnatal development. The majority of the transporter sites appeared after day 15. Lateral to medial and anterior to posterior gradients in transporter density were established early during development, and there was also an early concentration of transporter in striosomes that became difficult to identify by day 15. Differences between the developmental patterns described here and studies using other ligands for the dopamine transporter suggest there are significant differences in the transporter binding sites for these drugs. These differences in transporter ligand binding characteristics may reflect developmental changes in post-translational modification of the transporter and/or changes in the functional activity rather than simply the presence of the transporter.
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ABSTRACT: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults—intellectually, physically, hormonally and socially. Brain development in critical areas is ongoing. Adolescents are risk-taking and novelty-seeking and they weigh positive experiences more heavily and negative experiences less than adults. This inherent behavioral bias can lead to risky behaviors like drug taking. Most drug addictions start during adolescence and early drug-taking is associated with an increased rate of drug abuse and dependence.The hormonal changes of puberty contribute to physical, emotional, intellectual and social changes during adolescence. These hormonal events do not just cause maturation of reproductive function and the emergence of secondary sex characteristics. They contribute to the appearance of sex differences in non-reproductive behaviors as well. Sex differences in drug use behaviors are among the latter. The male predominance in overall drug use appears by the end of adolescence, while girls develop the rapid progression from first use to dependence (telescoping) that represent a female-biased vulnerability. Sex differences in many behaviors including drug use have been attributed to social and cultural factors. A narrowing gap in drug use between adolescent boys and girls supports this thesis. However, some sex differences in addiction vulnerability reflect biologic differences in brain circuits involved in addiction. The purpose of this review is to summarize the contribution of sex differences in the function of ascending dopamine systems that are critical to reinforcement, to briefly summarize the behavioral, neurochemical and anatomical changes in brain dopaminergic functions related to addiction that occur during adolescence and to present new findings about the emergence of sex differences in dopaminergic function during adolescence.Hormones and Behavior 11/2009; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 4–5% of the adult human population (Kessler et al., 2006; Willcutt, 2012). Often prescribed to attenuate ADHD symptoms (Nair and Moss, 2009), methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) can have substantial positive effects. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding its use during pregnancy. Thus, adult women with ADHD face a difficult decision when contemplating pregnancy. In this study, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were orally treated a total of 0 (water), 6 (low), 18 (medium), or 42 (high) mg MPH/kg body weight/day (divided into three doses) on gestational days 6–21 (i.e., the low dose received 2 mg MPH/kg body weight 3 ×/day). Offspring were orally treated with the same daily dose as their dam (divided into two doses) on postnatal days (PNDs) 1–21. One offspring/sex/litter was sacrificed at PND 22 or PND 104 (n = 6–7/age/sex/treatment group) and the striatum was quickly dissected and frozen. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a Photo Diode Array detector (PDA) was used to analyze monoamine content in the striatum of one side while a sandwich ELISA was used to analyze tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) from the other side. Age significantly affected monoamine and metabolite content as well as turnover ratios (i.e., DA, DOPAC, HVA, DOPAC/DA, HVA/DA, 5-HT and 5-HIAA); however, there were no significant effects of sex. Adult rats of the low MPH group had higher DA levels than control adults (p < 0.05). At both ages, subjects of the low MPH group had higher TH levels than controls (p < 0.05), although neither effect (i.e., higher DA or TH levels) exhibited an apparent dose–response. PND 22 subjects of the high MPH treatment group had higher ratios of HVA/DA and DOPAC/DA than same-age control subjects (p < 0.05). The increased TH levels of the low MPH group may be related to the increased DA levels of adult rats. While developmental MPH treatment appears to have some effects on monoamine system development, further studies are required to determine if these alterations manifest as functional changes in behavior.Neurotoxicology and Teratology 08/2014; · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several addictive or neurotoxic drugs are dependent on the dopamine transporter (DAT) and/or vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) to exert their detrimental effects on dopamine neurons. For example, methamphetamine and MPTP are substrates for both DAT and VMAT2, with the ratio of DAT to VMAT2 in striatum being a determinant of the degree of toxicity inflicted by these drugs on dopamine neurons. Thus, the susceptibility of dopamine neurons to agents whose pharmacology involves DAT and VMAT2 may vary during development if the ontogeny of DAT and VMAT2 differ, and this is relevant as exposure of dopamine neurons to toxic agents during development is hypothesized to underlie some neurological or psychiatric disorders. However, the relative expression of DAT and VMAT2 has not been studied in either primate or non-primate fetal brain, and this was addressed in the present study by measuring the binding of specific radioligands of DAT and VMAT2 to striatal membranes from non-human primates at mid-gestation, late-gestation and the postnatal and adult periods. Dopamine concentration was also determined in striatal tissue from the same brains. These data indicate that in striatum of primates, unlike rodents, there is a sharp increase in DAT and VMAT2 expression after mid-gestation with adult levels being attained at the time of birth. In addition, this study demonstrated that there is a coordinated expression of DAT and VMAT2 from the time of mid-gestation to adulthood. Synapse, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Synapse 03/2013; · 2.31 Impact Factor