Dopamine transporter development in postnatal rat striatum: an autoradiographic study with [3H]WIN 35,428.
ABSTRACT The dopamine transporter mediates the reinforcing effects of cocaine, thus playing a central role in human cocaine addiction, and perhaps providing the mechanism for inducing the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure. This possibility has stimulated growing interest in the normal and abnormal development of this transporter. [3H]WIN 35,428 is a cocaine analog that is useful for studying the distribution and density of the dopamine transporter in striatum and other brain regions. The postnatal development of the dopamine transporter in the rat striatum was measured by quantitative autoradiography with [3H]WIN 35,428. Dopamine transporter levels were low at birth, increased through day 15, followed by much more rapid growth in late postnatal development. The majority of the transporter sites appeared after day 15. Lateral to medial and anterior to posterior gradients in transporter density were established early during development, and there was also an early concentration of transporter in striosomes that became difficult to identify by day 15. Differences between the developmental patterns described here and studies using other ligands for the dopamine transporter suggest there are significant differences in the transporter binding sites for these drugs. These differences in transporter ligand binding characteristics may reflect developmental changes in post-translational modification of the transporter and/or changes in the functional activity rather than simply the presence of the transporter.
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ABSTRACT: Dopamine systems vary through development in a manner that can impact drugs acting on those systems. Dietary factors can also impact the effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems. This study examined whether eating high fat chow alters locomotor effects of cocaine (1-56 mg/kg) in adolescent and adult female rats. Cocaine was studied in rats (n = 6/group) with free access to standard (5.7% fat) or high fat (34.3%) chow or restricted access to high fat chow (body weight matched to rats eating standard chow). After 1 week of eating high fat chow (free or restricted access), sensitivity to cocaine was significantly increased in adolescent and adult rats, compared with rats eating standard chow. Sensitivity to cocaine was also increased in adolescent rats with restricted, but not free, access to high fat chow for 4 weeks. When adolescent and adult rats that previously ate high fat chow ate standard chow, sensitivity to cocaine returned to normal. In adolescent and adult female rats eating high fat chow, but not those eating standard chow, sensitivity to cocaine increased progressively over once weekly tests with cocaine (i.e., sensitization) in a manner that was not statistically different between adolescents and adults. These results show that eating high fat chow alters sensitivity of female rats to acutely administered cocaine and also facilitates the development of sensitization to cocaine. That the type of food consumed can increase drug effects might have relevance to vulnerability to abuse cocaine in the female population.Psychopharmacology 03/2012; 222(3):447-57. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several addictive or neurotoxic drugs are dependent on the dopamine transporter (DAT) and/or vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) to exert their detrimental effects on dopamine neurons. For example, methamphetamine and MPTP are substrates for both DAT and VMAT2, with the ratio of DAT to VMAT2 in striatum being a determinant of the degree of toxicity inflicted by these drugs on dopamine neurons. Thus, the susceptibility of dopamine neurons to agents whose pharmacology involves DAT and VMAT2 may vary during development if the ontogeny of DAT and VMAT2 differ, and this is relevant as exposure of dopamine neurons to toxic agents during development is hypothesized to underlie some neurological or psychiatric disorders. However, the relative expression of DAT and VMAT2 has not been studied in either primate or non-primate fetal brain, and this was addressed in the present study by measuring the binding of specific radioligands of DAT and VMAT2 to striatal membranes from non-human primates at mid-gestation, late-gestation and the postnatal and adult periods. Dopamine concentration was also determined in striatal tissue from the same brains. These data indicate that in striatum of primates, unlike rodents, there is a sharp increase in DAT and VMAT2 expression after mid-gestation with adult levels being attained at the time of birth. In addition, this study demonstrated that there is a coordinated expression of DAT and VMAT2 from the time of mid-gestation to adulthood. Synapse, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Synapse 03/2013; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 4–5% of the adult human population (Kessler et al., 2006; Willcutt, 2012). Often prescribed to attenuate ADHD symptoms (Nair and Moss, 2009), methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) can have substantial positive effects. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding its use during pregnancy. Thus, adult women with ADHD face a difficult decision when contemplating pregnancy. In this study, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were orally treated a total of 0 (water), 6 (low), 18 (medium), or 42 (high) mg MPH/kg body weight/day (divided into three doses) on gestational days 6–21 (i.e., the low dose received 2 mg MPH/kg body weight 3 ×/day). Offspring were orally treated with the same daily dose as their dam (divided into two doses) on postnatal days (PNDs) 1–21. One offspring/sex/litter was sacrificed at PND 22 or PND 104 (n = 6–7/age/sex/treatment group) and the striatum was quickly dissected and frozen. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a Photo Diode Array detector (PDA) was used to analyze monoamine content in the striatum of one side while a sandwich ELISA was used to analyze tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) from the other side. Age significantly affected monoamine and metabolite content as well as turnover ratios (i.e., DA, DOPAC, HVA, DOPAC/DA, HVA/DA, 5-HT and 5-HIAA); however, there were no significant effects of sex. Adult rats of the low MPH group had higher DA levels than control adults (p < 0.05). At both ages, subjects of the low MPH group had higher TH levels than controls (p < 0.05), although neither effect (i.e., higher DA or TH levels) exhibited an apparent dose–response. PND 22 subjects of the high MPH treatment group had higher ratios of HVA/DA and DOPAC/DA than same-age control subjects (p < 0.05). The increased TH levels of the low MPH group may be related to the increased DA levels of adult rats. While developmental MPH treatment appears to have some effects on monoamine system development, further studies are required to determine if these alterations manifest as functional changes in behavior.Neurotoxicology and Teratology 08/2014; · 3.18 Impact Factor