Association between Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Seropositivity among Male Factory Workers in Zimbabwe

Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 03/1998; 177(2):481-4. DOI: 10.1086/517381
Source: PubMed


To determine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), to identify correlates of infection, and to describe the correlation with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity, 224 HIV-negative and 191 HIV-positive male factory workers in Zimbabwe were screened for HSV-2-specific antibodies. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 35.7% among HIV-negative subjects and 82.7% among HIV-positive subjects. The weighted estimate of HSV-2 seroprevalence in this population is 44.6%. The correlation between HIV and HSV-2 remained significant after controlling for multiple sex partners, paying for sex, and history of sexually transmitted disease (adjusted odds ratio, 8.0; 95% confidence interval, 4.8-13.1). If the association between HSV-2 and HIV is causal, then the high seroprevalence of HIV and HSV-2 suggests that suppressive HSV-2 treatment should be considered as a strategy to reduce HIV transmission in this population. HSV-2 seroconversion may be a suitable surrogate end point to evaluate HIV prevention interventions.

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    • "HSV-2 infection is highly prevalent in regions disproportionately affected by the HIV-1 epidemic. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated higher incidence and prevalence rates of HIV-1 among HSV-2-infected populations and vice versa [2-5]. Sub-Saharan Africa with the highest prevalence of HIV-1 has about 80% prevalence rate of HSV-2 among its adult population [6,7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) is highly prevalent in regions disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) epidemic. The objective of our study was to identify the risk factors of HSV-2 and HIV-1 infections and to examine the association between the two infections. Methods The study participants were recruited through a community based cross-sectional study that was conducted from November 2002 to March 2003 in the Moshi urban district of Northern Tanzania. A two-stage sampling design was used in recruiting the study participants. Information on socio-demographics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, and STIs symptoms were obtained. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of HIV-1, HSV-2 and other STIs. Results The prevalence of HSV-2 infection among all study participants was 43%. The prevalence rate of HSV-2 among the HIV-negative and HIV-positive women was 40% and 65%, respectively. We found 2.72 times odds of having HIV-1 in an HSV-2 positive woman than in an HSV-2 negative woman. Furthermore, HIV-1 and HSV-2 shared common high-risk sexual behavior factors such as early onset of sexual debut, and testing positive for other STIs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that HSV-2 may be both a biological and risk-associated cofactor for HIV-1 acquisition. In resource-limited countries, where both infections are prevalent efforts at symptomatic and diagnostic screening and treatment of HSV-2 should be part of HIV-1 prevention programs.
    BMC Research Notes 08/2012; 5(1):451. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-5-451
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    • "In a rat study, 1,8-cineole prevented the sexual transmission of Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-2 is a frequently comorbid condition with HIV, and its prevention has been suggested as one method of lowering HIV transmission risks (Gwanzura et al. 1998). Perry et al. (2000) demonstrated that 1,8-cineole was an inhibitor of human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase, but that an essential oil of Salvia lavandulaefolia containing 1,8-cineole and other terpenoids produced a synergistic inhibition of acetylcholinesterase that suggested utility in the clinical treatment of Alzheimer's disease. "
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    ABSTRACT: . A central tenet underlying the use of botanical remedies is that herbs contain many active ingredients. Primary active ingredients may be enhanced by secondary compounds, which act in beneficial syn-ergy. Other herbal constituents may mitigate the side effects of dominant active ingredients. We reviewed the literature concerning medical can-nabis and its primary active ingredient, ∆ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Good evidence shows that secondary compounds in cannabis may enhance the beneficial effects of THC. Other cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid compounds in herbal cannabis or its extracts may reduce THC-induced anxiety, cholinergic deficits, and immunosuppression. Cannabis terpenoids and flavonoids may also increase cerebral blood flow, enhance cortical activity, kill respiratory pathogens, and provide anti-inflammatory activ-ity. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: and: Cannabis Therapeutics in HIV/AIDS (ed: Ethan Russo) The Haworth Integrative Healing Press, an imprint of The Haworth Press, Inc., 2001, pp. 103-132. Single or multiple copies of this arti-cle are available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service [1-800-342-9678, 9:00 a.m. -5:00 p.m. (EST). E-mail address:].
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    • "In 1999, the estimate of the number of sufferers to these infections worldwide was approximated as 86 million people (Halioua and Malkkin, 1999) and since then, the prevalence of HSV infection has been increasing (Smith and Robinson, 2002). In sub-Saharan Africa high seroprevalence rates of between 60 -80% in young adults have been recorded in population based studies (Wagner et al., 1994; Gwanzura et al., 1998; Obasi et al., 1999; WHO, 2008). "
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