Structural basis of plasticity in T cell receptor recognition of a self peptide-MHC antigen.
ABSTRACT The T cell receptor (TCR) inherently has dual specificity. T cells must recognize self-antigens in the thymus during maturation and then discriminate between foreign pathogens in the periphery. A molecular basis for this cross-reactivity is elucidated by the crystal structure of the alloreactive 2C TCR bound to self peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) antigen H-2Kb-dEV8 refined against anisotropic 3.0 angstrom resolution x-ray data. The interface between peptide and TCR exhibits extremely poor shape complementarity, and the TCR beta chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) has minimal interaction with the dEV8 peptide. Large conformational changes in three of the TCR CDR loops are induced upon binding, providing a mechanism of structural plasticity to accommodate a variety of different peptide antigens. Extensive TCR interaction with the pMHC alpha helices suggests a generalized orientation that is mediated by the Valpha domain of the TCR and rationalizes how TCRs can effectively "scan" different peptides bound within a large, low-affinity MHC structural framework for those that provide the slight additional kinetic stabilization required for signaling.
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ABSTRACT: Distinguishing T cell epitope distribution patterns is relevant for epitope-vaccine design. To that end, we invest0069gated the distribution of known CD8 T cell epitopes from Hepatitis C Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 and Influenza A Virus using x 2 statistics. We found that epitopes are not distributed in the viral proteomes proportionally to the size of the source proteins. Specifically, capsid and matrix proteins pack significantly more epitopes than those expected by their size. Such non-homogeneous distribution cannot be accounted by underlying MHC I-peptide binding preferences nor it is related to sequence variability. Instead, we propose that it might be related to preferential protein translation/biosynthesis. Overall, these results support the prioritization of structural antigens for epitope identification and vaccine design. Copyright: ß 2012 Diez-Rivero, Reche. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Understanding TR binding to pMHC complexes: how does a TR scan many pMHC complexes yet preferentially bind to one.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Understanding the basis of the binding of a T cell receptor (TR) to the peptide-MHC (pMHC) complex is essential due to the vital role it plays in adaptive immune response. We describe the use of computed binding (free) energy (BE), TR paratope, pMHC epitope, molecular surface electrostatic potential (MSEP) and calculated TR docking angle (θ) to analyse 61 TR/pMHC crystallographic structures to comprehend TR/pMHC interaction. In doing so, we have successfully demonstrated a novel/rational approach for θ calculation, obtained a linear correlation between BE and θ without any "codon" or amino acid preference, provided an explanation for TR ability to scan many pMHC ligands yet specifically bind one, proposed a mechanism for pMHC recognition by TR leading to T cell activation and illustrated the importance of the peptide in determining TR specificity, challenging the "germline bias" theory.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e17194. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Inflammation-associated nitrotyrosination affects TCR recognition through reduced stability and alteration of the molecular surface of the MHC complex.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nitrotyrosination of proteins, a hallmark of inflammation, may result in the production of MHC-restricted neoantigens that can be recognized by T cells and bypass the constraints of immunological self-tolerance. Here we biochemically and structurally assessed how nitrotyrosination of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-associated immunodominant MHC class I-restricted epitopes gp33 and gp34 alters T cell recognition in the context of both H-2D(b) and H-2K(b). Comparative analysis of the crystal structures of H-2K(b)/gp34 and H-2K(b)/NY-gp34 demonstrated that nitrotyrosination of p3Y in gp34 abrogates a hydrogen bond interaction formed with the H-2K(b) residue E152. As a consequence the conformation of the TCR-interacting E152 was profoundly altered in H-2K(b)/NY-gp34 when compared to H-2K(b)/gp34, thereby modifying the surface of the nitrotyrosinated MHC complex. Furthermore, nitrotyrosination of gp34 resulted in structural over-packing, straining the overall conformation and considerably reducing the stability of the H-2K(b)/NY-gp34 MHC complex when compared to H-2K(b)/gp34. Our structural analysis also indicates that nitrotyrosination of the main TCR-interacting residue p4Y in gp33 abrogates recognition of H-2D(b)/gp33-NY complexes by H-2D(b)/gp33-specific T cells through sterical hindrance. In conclusion, this study provides the first structural and biochemical evidence for how MHC class I-restricted nitrotyrosinated neoantigens may enable viral escape and break immune tolerance.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e32805. · 4.09 Impact Factor