Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in multiple sclerosis. Effect on relapses.
ABSTRACT We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 40 patients (aged 19 to 60 years) with clinical definite relapsing remitting (RR) MS and brain MRI confirmed. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a loading dose of immunoglobulin IgG (0.4 g/kg/body weight per day for 5 consecutive days), followed by single booster doses (0.4 g/kg/body weight) or placebo once every 2 months for 2 years. The primary outcome measures were change in the yearly exacerbation rate (YER), proportion of exacerbation-free patients, and time until first exacerbation. Neurologic disability, exacerbation severity, and changes in brain MRI lesion score were the secondary outcome measures, all determined at baseline, 1 year, and on completion. Treated patients showed a reduction in YER from 1.85 to 0.75 after 1 year and 0.42 after 2 years versus 1.55 to 1.8 after 1 year and to 1.4 after 2 years in the placebo group (p = 0.0006, overall), reflecting a 38.6% reduction in relapse rate. Six patients in the IVIg group were exacerbation free throughout the 2-year period of the study, whereas none were exacerbation free in the placebo group. The median time to first exacerbation was 233 days in the IVIg group versus 82 days in the placebo group (p = 0.003). Neurologic disability as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score) decreased by 0.3 in the IVIg group and increased by 0.15 in the placebo group. Total lesion score evaluated by brain MRI did not show a significant difference between groups. Side effects were minor and occurred in only 19 of 630 (3.0%) infusions administered in both groups. Our results suggest that IVIg may be safe and effective in reducing the frequency of exacerbations in RR-MS.
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ABSTRACT: Immune cell infiltration to the brain's territory was considered for decades to reflect a pathological process in which immune cells attack the central nervous system (CNS); such a process is observed in the inflammatory autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). As neuroinflammatory processes within the CNS parenchyma are also common to other CNS pathologies, regardless of their etiology, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), these pathologies have often been compared to MS, a disease that benefits from immunosuppressive therapy. Yet, over the last decade, it became clear that autoimmunity has a bright side, and that it plays a pivotal role in CNS repair following damage. Specifically, autoimmune T cells were found to facilitate CNS healing processes, such as in the case of sterile mechanical injuries to the brain or the spinal cord, mental stress, or biochemical insults. Even more intriguingly, autoimmune T cells were found to be involved in supporting fundamental processes of brain functional integrity, such as in the maintenance of life-long brain plasticity, including spatial learning and memory, and neurogenesis. Importantly, autoimmune T cells are part of a cellular network which, to operate efficiently and safely, requires tight regulation by other immune cell populations, such as regulatory T cells, which are indispensable for maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and homeostasis. Here, we suggest that dysregulation of the balance between peripheral immune suppression, on one hand, and protective autoimmunity, on the other, is an underlying mechanism in the emergence and progression of the neuroinflammatory response associated with chronic neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging. Mitigating chronic neuroinflammation under these conditions necessitates activation, rather than suppression, of the peripheral immune response directed against self. Accordingly, we propose that fighting off acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions requires breaking peripheral immune tolerance to CNS self-antigens, in order to boost protective autoimmunity. Nevertheless, the optimal approach to fine tune such immune response must be individually explored for each condition.Journal of Autoimmunity 11/2014; · 7.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Radix Astragali is famous for its beneficial effect on inflammation associated diseases. This study was to assess the efficacy of astragalosides (AST) extracted from Radix Astragali, on the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and explore its possible underlying molecular mechanisms.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2014; 14(1):313. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: General principles of construction and the use of the scintillation detectors and gamma camera are presented in this article. Various types of the scintillators and their usage in these devices are also described. Th e given information is oriented to those medical personnel and medical students, who are neither familiar with physics nor with physical terminology. We hope that our explanations will make them easier to understand aforementioned principles. Key words: Nuclear Medicine, Imaging, Scintillation detector, Gamma cameraSerbian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research 01/2010; 11(2):73-77.