Synthesis and Anticonvulsant Activity of a New Class of 2-[(Arylalkyl)amino]alkanamide Derivatives
ABSTRACT Although most epilepsies are adequately treated by conventional antiepileptic therapy, there remains an unfulfilled need for safer and more effective anticonvulsant agents. Starting from milacemide, a weak anticonvulsant, and trying to elucidate its mechanism of action, we discovered a structurally novel class of potent and preclinically safe anticonvulsants. Here we report the structure-activity relationship (SAR) study within this series of compounds. Different parts of the structural lead 2-[[4-(3-chlorobenzoxy)benzyl]amino]acetamide (6) were thus varied (Figure 1), and many potent anticonvulsants were found. As an outcome of this study, 57 ((S)-2-[[4-(3-fluorobenzoxy)benzyl]amino]propanamide methanesulfonate, PNU-151774E) emerged as a promising candidate for further development for its potent anticonvulsant activity and outstanding therapeutic indexes (TIs) in different animal tests.
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- "The sodium channel inhibition is both concentration-and state-dependent (different potency at different states of the channel), thus inhibiting the excessive presynaptic release of excitotoxic amino acids like glutamate without influencing the physiological activity     . Safinamide does not affect L-type calcium channels (no effects on blood pressure or heart rate)    , is well tolerated with a favorable side effect profile, has no major drug–drug interactions, and no diet restrictions   . "
ABSTRACT: Abstract: Background: Safinamide is a novel α-aminoamide with dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic properties developed as adjunctive therapy for patients with PD. Results from a 24-month double-blind controlled study suggested that as add-on to levodopa (and other PD medications) the benefits of safinamide on dyskinesia may be related to severity of dyskinesia at baseline.Objective: This post-hoc analysis further characterized the effects of safinamide on dyskinesia in mid- to late-stage PD patients.Methods: Patients were stratified by the presence or absence of dyskinesia at baseline, and by whether or not the dose of levodopa had been changed during the 24-month treatment period. Differences between safinamide and placebo were evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test.Results: For the overall treated population (with or without baseline dyskinesia), safinamide 100 mg/day significantly improved the dyskinesia rating scale score, compared with placebo, in the subgroup of patients with no change in levodopa dose (p = 0.0488). For patients with baseline dyskinesia, improvements over placebo were also significant (p = 0.0153) in patients with or without changes in levodopa dose, and nearly significant (p = 0.0546) in patients with no change in levodopa dose, suggesting that these improvements were not due to levodopa dose reductions.Conclusions: While no statistically significant difference in mean DRS scores was seen between safinamide and placebo in the original study population, the present post-hoc analysis helps to provide a meaningful interpretation of the long-term effects of safinamide on dyskinesia. These results may be related to safinamide state- and use-dependent inhibition of sodium channels and stimulated glutamate release, and are unlikely due to reduced dopaminergic stimulation.Journal of Parkinson's Disease 08/2015; 5(3):1-7. DOI:10.3233/JPD-150569 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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- "NW1029 and BIII 890 CL were synthesized as published (Pevarello et al., 1998; Carter et al., 2000; Veneroni et al., 2003). "
ABSTRACT: The tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-subunit Nav1.8 is expressed in nociceptors and has been implicated in chronic pain. Difficulties of heterologous expression have so far precluded analysis of the pharmacological properties of human Nav1.8. To address this we have introduced human Nav1.8 in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Voltage-clamp analysis showed that human Nav1.8 generated an inward tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium current with an activating threshold around -50 mV, half maximal activation at -11+/-3 mV and a reversal potential of 67+/-4 mV. These properties closely match those of the endogenous rat tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium current in dorsal root ganglia suggesting that the expressed human channel is in a near physiological conformation. Human Nav1.8 was resistant to tetrodotoxin and activated by the pyrethroid toxin deltamethrin. Both voltage-activated and deltamethrin-activated human Nav1.8 were inhibited by the sodium channel blockers BIII 890 CL, NW-1029, and mexiletine. Inhibition of Nav1.8 by these compounds may underlie their known analgesic effects in animal models.European Journal of Pharmacology 01/2006; 528(1-3):52-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.10.035 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Kainic acid-induced multifocal status epilepticus in the rat is a model of medically intractable complex partial seizures and neurotoxicity. The exact mechanisms of kainic acid epileptogenic and neurotoxic effects are unknown, but enhanced glutamate release seems to be an important factor. PNU-151774E ((S)-(+)-2-(4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy) benzylamino) propanamide, methanesulfonate) is a broad-spectrum new anticonvulsant with Na+ channel-blocking and glutamate release inhibiting properties. We have examined the effect of pretreatment with this compound on both seizure activity and hippocampal neuronal damage induced by systemic injection of kainic acid in rats. Lamotrigine, a recently developed anticonvulsant with similar glutamate release inhibitory properties, was tested for comparison, together with diazepam as reference standard, on the basis of its anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant properties in this animal model. PNU-151774E, lamotrigine (10, 30 mg/kg; i.p.) and diazepam (20 mg/kg; i.p.) were administered 15 min before kainic acid (10 mg/kg; i.p.). In the vehicle-treated group, kainic acid injection caused status epilepticus in 86% of animals. Hippocampal neuronal cell loss was 66% in the CA4 hippocampal area at 7 days after kainic acid administration. Diazepam inhibited both seizures and neurotoxicity. Lamotrigine reduced hippocampal neuronal cell loss at both doses, even when it did not protect from seizures, although it showed a trend toward protection. On the other hand PNU-151774E protected from both hippocampal neurodegeneration and status epilepticus. Thus, these data support the concept that seizure prevention and neuroprotection might not be tightly coupled. Glutamate release inhibition may play a major role in neuroprotection, but an additional mechanism(s) of action might be relevant for the anticonvulsant activity of PNU-151774E in this model.European Journal of Pharmacology 11/1998; 359(1):27-32. DOI:10.1016/S0014-2999(98)00554-8 · 2.53 Impact Factor