oC AwIied Ps)dookJcy ~ 1998 by die AIIMrican PI)dIOiOIicaI Aaoci8IiOD. Inc
0021-90IM8/$).OO 1998. ~. I~: No, I. 112-111
Effects of Parents' Job Insecurity
Work Beliefs and Attitudes
Julian Harling, Kathryne E. Dupre, and C. Gail Hepburn
The authors hypothesized that children's perceptions of their parents' job insecurity
mediate the effects of parental job insecurity and layoffs on children's work beliefs and
work attitudes. Male and female undergraduate students (N = 134; M age = 18.9 years),
as well as their mothers (M age = 47.0 years) and fathers (M age = 49.1 years),
participated voluntarily. With structural equation modeling as implemented by LISREL
VIII, support for the proposed model was obtained, whereas no support was obtained
for a competing model. Moreover, identification with fathers moderated the influence of
perceived paternal job insecurity on children's humanistic work beliefs, but no comparable
effect emerged for mothers.
In an attempt to cut costs, adapt to technological
change, and become more profitable, organizations have
engaged in widespread layoffs and downsizings in North
America in d1e 1980s and 1990s (The Downsizing of
America, 1996). These strategies are now being ques-
tioned because of empirical evidence suggesting that tl1ese
aims are not necessarily achieved (DeMeuse, Vander-
heiden, & Bergmann, 1994). However, d1e fact that down-
1994; Piotrkowski & Stark, 1987). However, most of
these data were collected during times of relative organi-
zational stability, when job insecurity was less of a chronic
concern (Barling & Sorensen, 1997). What remains to
be understood is wl1ed1er and how parental experiences
of job insecurity affect children, and d1e aim of the present
study was to address tl1ese questions.
Job insecurity reflects the degree to which employees
sizing frequently does not accomplish its purpose is only
one of the many questionable ramifications arising from
die increase in downsizing.
perceive their job to be threatened and feel powerless to
do anything about it (Ashford, Lee, & Bobko, 1989). Job
insecurity affects employees' own well-being (e.g.. anger,
Another question arising from die increase in downsiz-
jog involves its possible effects on die family. There is
an abundance of evidence showing a consistent link be-
tween die experience of work and family functioning (i.e..
Barling, 1990, 1992, 1994). One critical finding is that
when children see d1eir parents involved in, and satisfied
c::Ynicism. and reduced satisfaction) and wolk. functioning
(e.g., lowO" job performance, lower morale, distrust of
management, and lower wolk. motivation; Ashford et aI..
1989; Barling, 1994; Brockner, 1988; O'Neill & Leon,
1995). In addition, d1e effects of job insecurity go beyond
die iDsec.n'e employee: alildren
! of parents experiencing
with. dIeir work. d1eir well-being is enhanced, and d1ey
develop positive wolk. attitudes (Abramovitch & Johnson,
1992; Barling, 1990, 1992; Barling, Kelloway, & Bremer-
mann. 1991; Hanagan & Eccles, 1993; Kelloway & Watts,
insecurity manifest social and school-related problems
(Aanagan & Eccles, 1993; Stewart & Barling, 1996).
alildreo routinely observe d1eir parents' reactions to
dIeir work.. There are data showing that by the third and
fourth grade. children know where d1eir parents work.
know what wolk. dIeir parents do, and are aware of dIeir
parents' job satisfaction (Abramovitch & Johnson, 1992;
Kelloway & Watts, 1994; Piotrkowski & Stark, 1987).
Thus, we predicted that when children see d1eir parents
layoffs and job insecurity, they develop per-
ceptions of d1eir parents' job insecurity. In turn, children
are influenced by dIeir perceptions of how dIeir parents
experience their work (Barling et aI., 1991; Kelloway &
'fYAu.., .uus S y, we lOCUS on
0 parents Jo msecunty uence
Julian Barling, School of Business, Queen's ~ity,
Kingston, Ontario, Canada; Kathryfie E. Dupre and C. Gail
Hepburn, ~t of Psychology, Qu~' s ~ity,
ton, Ontario, Canada.
Portions of this research were supported by grants from the
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.
die Imperial,ail ~t.able fuundation, and the 'School. of B~i-
ness, ~ s ~Ity. We acknowledge constructive com-
ts froE. v_.:- KcUo
DaI m ~YUI way.
CortespoOOence concerning this article should be addressed
1994) In...: tud
rk bell ~
Wal S wo
to Julian Barling, School of Business, Qu~'s
Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6.
~ity, and work. attitudes (see Figure 1).
How work beliefs and attitudes develop has been of
RESEARCH REPORrS 113
affect children's own work beliefs (Barling et aI., 1991;
Kelloway & Watts, 1994).
Consistent with Barling et aI.' s (1991) finding that
Marxist work beliefs predict union attitudes, our model
(see Figure 1) further postulates that students' work be-
liefs predict their work-related attitudes, that is, their own
motivation to, and alienation from, work. When students
have low humanistic work beliefs (i.e., they believe that
is inherently bad or that work itself is not fulfillin g )
or a low Protestant work ethic (i.e., they believe
their own efforts will not necessarily lead to success).
we expect that they experience lower motivation to work
and greater alienation from work.
In this study, we hypothesized that any effects of per-
ceptions of parents' job insecurity on children's own work
beliefs would not be uniform across all children. Instead,
this relationship would be moderated by the extent to
which children identify with the parent. Presumably, any
effects of a parent's job insecurity would be greater if
children identify closely with the parent. There is some
support for this notion. KelloWay, Barling, and Agar
(1996) found that parental union attitudes and involve-
were stronger predictors of children's union attitudes
when the child identified strongly with the parent. Simi-
larly, daughters' identification with their mothers moder-
ated the relationship between perceptions of their mothers'
and their own gender-role ideology (Steele & Barling,
, of layoffs
Job M.2!!!m: .work
, of layoffs that
Figure 1. Path model predicting the effects of parents' job
insecurity on children's work beliefs and attitudes.
interest for some time (Barling et aI., 1991; Fornham,
1990; Kelloway & Watts, 1994; Loughlin & Barling, in
press), and there are now data isolating the role of family
socialization. Barling et aI. ( 1991 ) showed that the extent
to which teenagers perceive their parents to have partici-
pated in union activities predicts their own humanistic
and Marxist work beliefs.. Kelloway and Watts (1994)
extended these findings, showing that perceptions of par -ment
ents' work beliefs influence teenage children's work be-
liefs. Any preemployment influences on the development
of work beliefs and attitudes are important for several
reasons: FlfSt, work beliefs serve to clarify and simplify
people's views of the world of work (Buchholz, 1978);
in this sense, work beliefs function as a perceptual filter
through which work experiences are intelpreted. Second,
attitudes in general are most susceptible to change during
adolescence and early adulthood; susceptibility to attitude
change declines rapidly thereafter (Krosnick & Alwyn,
1989). For example, union attitudes are relatively stable,
even in the face of intense and Sometimes illegal cam-
Fmally, because the fit of one model does not preclude
alternative models from fitting the data as wen. or better
than. the proposed model. we also assessed the goodness
of fit of an alternative model. In the alternative model.
work beliefs and work attitudes are held to be predicted
simultaneously by perceptions of parents' job insecurity
paigning (Getman," Goldberg, & Hennan. 1976).
In this study, we suggest that perceiving parents' job Method
insecurity is negatively associated with both the Protestant
and the humanistic work belief. There are several reasons
for this. FlfSt, the Protestant work belief reflects the notion
dlat work is inherently good and dlat bard work can ensure
dlat obstacles can be overcome (Buchholz, 1978), Stu-
dents who see their parents losing their jobs or experienc-
mg jO msecun esp1
. thebeli f .ther oL- bard
Y to sustain e e1
course credit. Participants were 20 years of age or yOUDgtt, and
both ~~ were .currentl~ employed but not self~lo~
The age limit was imposed m an attempt to ensure that partiCl-
pants were still influenced by their parents.
introductory psychology students (139 women,
initially volunteeted to participate .in dus study for
ty d .te the .
ts' bestffi rts
rk ' inh
or that bard work can protect
the humanistic work belief suggests pea- According to the humarustic work ~lief perspective. wo
I be fulfilled through the'
on the qualit.r ?f the work expen~ce, ,Watchi~
~iT I?arents lose the~ jobs or suf!er from job msecunty
IS unlikely to lead children to believe dlat people can be
fulfilled through their work and that work is a potential
source of growth and development. Third. prior research
has shown that perceptions of parents' work experiences
reflects one fundamental avenue by which people can fulfill
themselves. The fact that work is basic to human fulfi1lntel1t
is acknowledged within the Marxist work belief; however. as
currently organized work does not allow for such fulfillment
because of exploitatiOn. to overco~ dus, wormos need more
control in the workplace, The work ethic (or "Protestant" worlc
ethic) suggests d1at wort in itself is good and bestows dignity
on those who ha~ wort (Buchholz, 1978).
"-"" ,i"",,J, l,;
114 RESEARCH REPORfS
Descriptive statistics, reliabilities, and intercorrelations of all
study variables appear in Table 1.
able with Kuhnert and Vance's (1992) 18-item job insecurity
measure. Respondents rated all 18 items (e.g., "1 can be sure
of my present job as long as 1 do good work"; reverse coded)
on a 5-point Likert scale (I = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly
agree). Previous studies have shown the scale to be internally
consistent (a =: .70, see Ku~nert & Vance, 19?2;.a = .~o,
Stewart & Barllng, 1996). High scores reflect Job Insecunty.
Parents were also asked to indicate the number of times they
had been. laid off in ~ past 20 years, ~
was obtained by sunumng across these tIme perIods.
Studenls'work beliefs. We used 14 of Mirels and Garrett's
~ ~ ¥
~ ~ t
~ -; '::
; t ~
";' ~ '6
":-: e '<5
.2 .". :::-
insecurity. We assessed this vari- '"
-,..;. ."7 II
0\ ~~ S ~
,..;. '" I.. " '..
a tot.at layoff score ..~
0;- ~ ~ ~ ~
~ "') 7"7 ~ ~ r-
(1971) 19 items to measure humanistic worlc beliefs (Buchholz.
1978). FIVe items (item numbers 2, 5, 13, 14, and 18) were
excluded. as their inclusion left the scale with a reliability less
than .70. Nineteen items from Mirels and Garrett's question-
~ : i;j
N ~ ~ ~ ~ -~
~ ~ ~ ("7 ~ r-
naire (1971) measured Protestant worlc beliefs. The response
format for both worlc belief scales
scalI d .5
e (1 = strong y zsagree;
indicate stronger belief.
g using tern, tone,
(1990) eight-item scale; each item has a four-point response
scale (strongly disagree, disagree, agree, strongly agree). High
~ ~ S
~ M .
was a 5-point
r- M M \0 M -M
~ C! C! C! C! C! C!
= strong \0
I I I ,:..
StudenlS' work attitudes.
We measured motivation to do
and M M 'Il '
; t ~
V) ~ ~
~ ~ ~
* c lions
on 3?; ~ 'cq 'cq ~ ~ b; ~
~ I I I
scores represent more motivation to work. Alienation was ~-
sured with Kanungo's (1982) six-item scale. This scale has a
6-point Likert-type response format (1 ':'" strongly disagree; 6
-strongly agree). High scores indicate more alienation at work.
Identification with parenls.
a revision of MacEwen's (1991) scale. Three items were taken
directly from this scale. A fourth item ("I share common beliefs
8: ~ ~ S ~ 8 = ~ :..;
We assessed this variable with."(J' : ..; ~ :; ~
is t"" .
C! ~ C! C! C! C! C! C! C! .B:
I I I
M ~ ~
and attitudes with my father/mother")
study to balance ~
bons 0 P ysl
scale was a 7-po int Likert- type scale (1 = not at all true;
= very true). Students completed two sets of questions, one
pertaining to ~ir motheIs and dle otheI" to dleir fa~.
scores cate greater I cation WI
Students' pen:eptions of each parent:S- job insecurity.
assessed this variable with a revised version of Kuhnert and
item was reworded for ~ cunmt study to correspond to stu-
dents' perceptions of their motheIs' and fa~'
Students were asked to complete this questionnaire twice, that is,
separately for ~ir motheIs' and fathers' job insecurity. Students
responded on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree;"
5 = strongly agree). High scores on the scale re ect perceptIon
was included in dlis
~ ~ ~
~ t ~ :
~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ,,' i
-: ~ t .
=u ~ ~ M
.g I ~ ~
~ . E ~
1 ~ ~:
extent to which the scale assesses percep-
::: 0\ ~ ~ :, ~ M ..M 10 :.
response '" '" '" ..'"
High f:::' \0 0 \0 &, ..r-- r- :. 0 M r-
~ -M 0"" 0 --M
I I I I
thts -0 0
] -0\ \0 -M
r-: "') ~
M r-- r-- -M
CO) ~ ) 18-item Job InsecurityQu estionnaire Each ~ ~ CO) r-: :s: ~ r-: ~ ~ >,
job insecurity. ): $ je b; ~ ~;
N N d d N N ..; ..,: ..; ..; ..,: ..,:
~ r: (;; ~ ~ ~
~ Or!1 ..!!
of high job insecurity. tJ.s
~ i ~~~~ ~ ~i~g~~~
" > ...'
()()I ~~OBlJ ~. ~
1 ~ 1 ~ ~ R>llowing'dle completion of the questionnaire in groups of ~ :. ~ ~
approximately 35: outside of regul~ .class times, ~ .200 ~-
dents ~ asked if they would be willtng to send questionnaires
to dIeir parents. Thirty students declined and ~fore
J j J I J J
~ I ~ ~ I ~ i ~ ~ V
, ~ Q.
RFSEARCH REPORrS 115
excluded from the study. Each of the remaining 170 students index (AGFI) = .87.1\110 fit indexes comparing the fit of
was asked to write a short note to both his or her mother and
f ,L- t.:
au"", asMng at y take part In the present study. Of
these 340 parents, 294 responded (response rate = 86%). Be-
cause this study was investigating the effects of both parents
on children, the data could be used for a student only if both
parents returned their questionnaires. Thus, of the 294 returned
questionnaires, 26 were excluded leaving 134 full data sets. The
mean age of these children was 18.9 years (SD = 4, range =
17-20). The sample included 103 female students and 30 male
students (one unstated). Of the fathers in the current study (M
age = 49.1 years, SD = 4.0), 20% had been laid off within the
last 5 years, and 44% had been laid off at least once within the
last 20 y~. Of~ ~thers (Mage = 47.0, SD = 3.8),11%
had been laid off ~lth.1n the last 5 years, and 26% had been laid
off at least once WIthin the last 20 years.
the data with that of a null model wereals
tive fit index (NFl) = .81, comparative fit index (CFI)
-91 The CFI .d be
-~ d l' .~OVI ~~ a
w n ea mg WI .s~ er samples..
Because of the significant correlation between students'
~rceptions of their mothers' and their fathers' job i~secu-
nty (r = .23, p < .01), we allowed these two smgle-
indicator latent variables to covary. This greatly improved
the fit of the model to the data, X2(27,N = 134) = 38.09,
p > .05; GFI = .95, AGFI = .89, NFl = .85, CFI = .95,
and the completely standardized solution for this model
is presented in Figure 2. Although the model provided a
good fit to the data, not all proposed paths were signifi-
.ficallalthhcan. pecl y, oug mo
tter I cation of model fit
the , If
ed . b.
rs se -report JO m-
security predicted students' perceptions of their mothers'
job insecurity, the number of layoffs that mothers had
experienced did not predict student perception of the
mothers' job insecurity. In addition, students' perceptions
of mothers' job insecurity did not predict work beliefs.
In the alternative model, in which the two single-indica-
tor latent variables of students' perceptions of their moth-
ers' and their fathers' job insecurity were allowed to co-
vary, work beliefs and work attitudes were both predicted
simultaneously by students' perceptions of fathers' and
mothers' job insecurity. This model provided a poor fit to
the data, X2(26, N = 134) = 89.74,p < .05; GFI = .90,
AGFI = .78 NFl = .64, CFI = .69.2
To test our hypothesis that identification with parents
would moderate the relationships between pecceptions of
mothers' and fathers' job insecurity on work beliefs, we
computed four multiple regression analyses. Predictor and
moderator variables were entered on the first step. Be-
cause multicolinearity may obscure such interaction ef-
fects, we followed Aiken and West's (1991) procedure:
Parental identification and pecceptions of job insecurity
were centered around zero (i.e., the mean of each variable
was subtracted from every score) prior to testing for inter-
action effects. Centering predictor and moderator vari-
abies adds meaning to the results, because we can then
estimate the strength of the relationship at the mean of
parental identification (i.e., M = 0). An interaction term,
co~puted by multiplying the predictor and moderator
variables, was entered in the second step. If the change
in R2 between the first and second step is significant.
identification with the parent moderates the relationship
between perceptions of parents' job insecurity on work
beliefs. However, analyses of data from field studies indi-
cate that interactions typically account for less than 3% of
the variance. In addition, because of difficulties associated
with assessing interaction terms on data derived in field
Fathers experienced significantly more layoffs than
mothers, t( 133) = 2.27,p < .05, but manifested no differ-
ences in self-reported levels of job insecurity, t( 133) =
-1.01, p > .05. However, students perceived their moth-
ers' job insecurity as significantly higher than their fa-
thers' job insecurity (see Table 1).
We cOnducted tests for gender differences and used the
pooled variance estimate of the t test. Gender differences
were found for two of the eight self-report measures.
Female students (M = 4.75, SD = 0.33) reported signifi-
cantly higher humanistic work beliefs than their male
counterparts (M = 4.59, SD = 0.49), t(132) = 2.16, p
< .05. In contrast, male students reported greater identi-
fication with their fathers than did female students (M =
4.99, SD = 1.29 vs. M = 4.45, SD = 1.18, respectively),
t(132) = 2.17, P < .05.
We tested the proposed model with structural equa-
tion modeling using maximum likelihood estimation in
USREL VIII (Joreskog & Sorl>om, 1993). The covari-
ance matrix was used in all USREL VIII analyses. We
used the humanistic and Protestant work beliefs as indica-
tors of the latent variable work beliefs, and motivation and
alienation were used as indicators of the latent variable
work attitudes. The remaining variables in the model were
treated as single indicators of latent variables in an attempt
to account for measurement error. Thus, unique variances
of these variables were fixed at the product of (1 -reli-
ability of the measure) and the variance, and the common
factor loading was equal to the product of the square root
of the reliability and the standard deviation. We were not
able to calculate reliabilities for the variables reflecting
the objective number of maternal and paternal layoffs and
conservatively estimated a reliability coefficient of 0.80
for these measures.
This proposed model offered a fair but not outstanding
fit to the data, X2(28, N = 134) = 46.85, p < .05; good-
ness-of-fit index (GFI) = .94, adjusted goodness-of-fit
2 A figure reflecting the results obtained for the alternative
model is available from Julian Barfing on request.
c. c ., """'-"M'U--
116 RESEARai REPORrS
Figure 2. Effects of parents' job insecurity on children's work beliefs and attitudes.
research. we examined any interaction accounting for
more than 2% of the variance. Both Monte Carlo and field
studies support this more liberal approach to analyzing
interaction effects (Barling & Kelloway, 1996; Cham-
poux &~, 1987; Evans, 1985).
None of the interactions for mothers were. significant.
For fathers, die interaction between identification with
fathel'S and perceptions of paternal job insecurity ap-
proacbed significance for hllrnanistic work beliefs (p =
.06; 2% of die variance accounted for). Thus, the simple
slopes for this relationship were examined following the
procedure outlined by Aiken and West (1991), and the
relationships between perceptions of paternal job insecu-
rity and die humanistic beliefs were then calculated for
parental identification. a.t one standard deviation be.lo~
and one standard deviation above die mean. Humanistic
beliefs wtte strongly and negatively related to perceptions
of fathers' job insecurity when identification with ~ fa-
~ was hi~ (,8 = -.38, p < .001). The ~
s.hiP was slightly lower at the mean of .pa.ternall~en.tifica- ployment predictors of work beliefs and work attitudes is
tion (I! = -:-.25,.p < :05) but not statistically Significant
when Identification With the father was low (,8 = -.11,
P > .05).
we postulated a model in which children who watch their
parents experiencing layoffs and insecurity perceive this
insecurity and develop negative work beliefs that then
predict their work-related attitudes. This model provided
a good fit to the data. In contrast, an alternative model in
which work beliefs and work attitudes were predicted
simultaneously by children's perceptions of parents' job
insecurity was not supported by the data.
The finding that paternal job insecurity and layoffs are
accurately perceived by children and affect their own work
beliefs and attitudes has several conceptual implications.
First, the notion that work experiences (e.g., job iosecu-
rity) rathec than employment status affect family function-
ing (e.g., Bar1iog, 1990, 1992) is replicated. Second. fam-
ily stressors are again shown to exert negative conse-
quences for children (i.e., D'Angelo, Weinbel"ger. &
~Idman. 1995). Third. because attitudes are relatively
stable afteI" late adolescence and early adulthood (Kros-
nick & Alwyn. 1989), any understanding of the preem-rel~tion-
important. If these work beliefs and attitudes are indeed
stable, we may soon be witnessing large groups of young
people entering the work world with preexisting negative
work beliefs and attitudes, which may not be amenable
to change. fuurth. the relative effects of parents' job iose-
curity and number of la~offs can be. co~trasted: a1il~'
perceptions of both their parents' Job 1osecunty were m-
fiueoced more by parents' job insecurity than number of
layoffs experienced (fathers: ,8 = 0.50 vs. 0.31; motf.1ers:
,8 = 0.52 vs. 0.06). This suggests strongly that findings
The primary purpose of the present study was to inves-
tigate whedlel' and how parents' feelings of job insecurity
and history of personal layoffs affect their children's work
beliefs and work attitudes. On the basis of previous re-
search (Barling et aI., 1991; Kelloway & Watts, 1994),
RESEARCH REPORfS 117
on the effects of unemployment on children need to be
augmented by an understanding of the effects of parental
These findings go further in identifying conditions that
moderate the relationship between perceptions of parents'
job insecurity and work beliefs. Specifically, this relation-
ship was stronger when students identified more strongly
their fathers, and this is consistent with previous data
on the role of parental identification (Kelloway et al.,
1996; Steele & Barling, 1996). One implication of this
finding is somewhat ironic: Emery (1982) suggested ear-
lier that a positive relationship with one parent might
buffer children from any negative effects of parental con-
flict. Our findings, and those of Kelloway et al. (1996)
and Steele and Barling (1996), question this notion, sug-
gesting instead that a close identification with a parent
experiencing stress might be hanDful for the child. How-
ever, future research is warranted before any definitive
conclusions are appropriate because the moderating effect
emerged for the relationship between perceptions of fa-
thers' job insecurity and students' own humanistic beliefs
fluence of mothers' job insecurity in settings where
women are the primary family income providers. This
would enable an assessment of whether the current find-
ings differentiating between perceptions of mothers' and
fathers' job insecurity is a function of gender per se or of
the breadwinner role. Future research might also focus on
other outcomes that may be affected by watching one's
parents experiencing layoffs and job insecurity, such as
academic performance, social behaviors, and union
In conclusion, the present findings contribute signifi-
cantly to the current understanding of work and family.
In general these findings show how parents' experiences
of layoffs and job insecurity affect their children. The
current findings also question whether current organiza-
tional practices might result in greater numbers of young
people entering the world of work with pessimistic work
beliefs and attitudes.
but did not emerge for mothers.
Although the proposed model was shown to fit the data,
we should note that two predicted relationships were not
supported by the data, namely perceptions of mothers'
job insecurity was not related to either the number of
I ff thers h d. ced
ayo s mo a expenen
li r m..
eJ.s. J. wO actors may account
tion is a possible factor, as fathers had experienced twice
as many layoffs, and the standard deviation of fathers'
.layoffs was twice as high as the corresponding score for
motbels (see Table 1). The second possibility arises be-
cause fatbels are probably seen in more of a breadwinning
role, and hence their layoffs may be perceived as more
consequential. It is also worth noting the nonnormal distri-
bution nature of the data reflecting the number of layoffs
expen~ a ~ s~wness
motbels.. s~w~ess. -5.48, kurtOSIS -37-3:8).
One limitation m the current research IS that we do
not know the proportion of children from intact versus
reconstituted marriages, and it would. be important for
future research to assess whether children are differen-
tially affected by natural parents' versus stepparents' job
insecurity. Second, like much of the literature in the work
and family domain, which focuses predominantly on "tra-
ditional families" despite the many people today who no
longer fit into the traditional nuclear family stereOtype
& S 1997)
( ~ ~ng .ore~ .'
famIlies. This may lilDlt the generalizabllity of our find-
ings, as single parents may have less access to social
support, while simultaneously experiencing greater fi-
nancial strain, both of which could exacerbate any effects
of job insecurity and layoffs on children (Barling & So-
rensen, 1997). Rlture research should investigate the in-
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ReceIVed November 8. 1996
Revision received August 18. 1997
Accepted August 18. 1997 .