Cyclic AMP protects against staurosporine and wortmannin-induced apoptosis and opioid-enhanced apoptosis in both embryonic and immortalized (F-11kappa7) neurons.
ABSTRACT The mechanism by which opiates affect fetal development is unknown, but one potential target is the programmed cell death (apoptosis) pathway of neurons. Apoptosis was induced in both primary neuronal cultures from embryonic day 7 cerebral hemispheres of chick brain (E7CH) and the F-11kappa7 cell line (an immortalized mouse neuroblastoma x dorsal root ganglion hybrid stably transfected to overexpress kappa-opioid receptors) by either staurosporine or the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. Cells pretreated with either the mu-specific opioid agonist morphiceptin (E7CH) or the kappa-specific opioid agonist U69,593 (F-11kappa7) for 24 h showed increased apoptosis in response to staurosporine or wortmannin when compared with non-pretreated cells. The effects of morphiceptin and U69,593 were time- and dose-dependent and antagonist-reversible, suggesting that they were receptor-mediated. Neither morphiceptin nor U69,593 by themselves had any measurable effect on cell viability or DNA fragmentation, and coaddition of opiates at the same time as staurosporine, wortmannin, or LY294002 did not enhance apoptosis. Time course studies indicated a maximal opioid effect at a time (16-24 h) when inhibition of adenylate cyclase had been maximal for many hours. Addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP either before or at the time of opioid addition protected against apoptosis and reduced fragmentation to levels seen for staurosporine plus dibutyryl cyclic AMP alone. The specificity for cyclic AMP was confirmed by showing protection with the specific agonist Sp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate and increased killing with the antagonist Rp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate. We conclude that the opioid enhancement of apoptosis is based on the inhibition of adenylate cyclase and that the effect is time-dependent.
SourceAvailable from: Venkata Subba Rao Atluri[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Parenteral use of drugs; such as opiates exert immunomodulatory effects and serve as a cofactor in the progression of HIV-1 infection, thereby potentiating HIV related neurotoxicity ultimately leading to progression of NeuroAIDS. Morphine exposure is known to induce apoptosis, down regulate cAMP response element-binding (CREB) expression and decrease in dendritic branching and spine density in cultured cells. Use of neuroprotective agent; brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), which protects neurons against these effects, could be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of opiate addiction. Previous studies have shown that BDNF was not transported through the blood brain barrier (BBB) in-vivo.; and hence it is not effective in-vivo. Therefore development of a drug delivery system that can cross BBB may have significant therapeutic advantage. In the present study, we hypothesized that magnetically guided nanocarrier may provide a viable approach for targeting BDNF across the BBB. We developed a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) based carrier bound to BDNF and evaluated its efficacy and ability to transmigrate across the BBB using an in-vitro BBB model. The end point determinations of BDNF that crossed BBB were apoptosis, CREB expression and dendritic spine density measurement. We found that transmigrated BDNF was effective in suppressing the morphine induced apoptosis, inducing CREB expression and restoring the spine density. Our results suggest that the developed nanocarrier will provide a potential therapeutic approach to treat opiate addiction, protect neurotoxicity and synaptic density degeneration.PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0062241 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood and the most common cancer in infancy. Our purpose was to investigate in vitro how cancer cell survival occurs in presence of morphine in undifferentiated and differentiated SHSY-5Y human neuroblastoma cultured cell line. Exposure of undifferentiated cells to morphine dose-dependently induced apoptosis in these cells through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/caspase pathway. Otherwise, morphine induced activation for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, caused positive regulation of cell survival in undifferentiated cells. Therefore, cell differentiation state bimodally affects the cellular regulation activity triggered by morphine in isolated cultured neuroblastoma cells raising concerns about the application of morphine to this type of cancer patients.Neuroscience Letters 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2013.07.039 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Repeated administration of addictive drugs induces neuronal apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Our present study investigated the effects of treatments with different addictive drugs on gene expression of murine double minute clone 2 (MDM2), a key negative regulator of p53 and an important mediator in cell apoptosis. The level of MDM2 gene expression in rat brain was assessed using in situ hybridization histochemistry. In normal adult rat brain, MDM2 expression was at a very low level but MDM2 mRNA-positive cells were detected in various regions including cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, periaqueductal gray and locus ceruleus. After a single morphine injection, MDM2 gene expression increased significantly in hippocampus, amygdala and cortex; however, such up-regulation of MDM2 gene expression was significantly reduced after repeated morphine administration. Moreover, 24 h after cessation of chronic morphine exposure, MDM2 mRNA increased again to a level comparable to that of the acute morphine group. Acute heroin or cocaine administration also significantly increased MDM2 gene expression in hippocampus, but not in cortex. In thalamus, no change was detected after acute or chronic treatment with morphine, heroin, or cocaine. Thus we demonstrated for the first time that the administration of addictive drugs regulate MDM2 gene expression in distinct rat brain regions and these data suggest that MDM2 may play an important role in the development of drug addiction.Neuroscience Letters 01/2003; DOI:10.1016/S0304-3940(03)01046-2 · 2.06 Impact Factor