Multiple jeopardy: Risk and protective factors among addicted mothers’ offspring. Development and Psychopathology, 10(01), 117

Department of Human Development, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.
Development and Psychopathology (Impact Factor: 4.89). 02/1998; 10(1):117-36. DOI: 10.1017/S0954579498001333
Source: PubMed


Objectives of this study were to ascertain risk and protective factors in the adjustment of 78 school-age and teenage offspring of opioid- and cocaine-abusing mothers. Using a multimethod, multiinformant approach, child outcomes were operationalized via lifetime psychiatric diagnoses and everyday social competence (each based on both mother and child reports), and dimensional assessments of symptoms (mother report). Risk/protective factors examined included the child sociodemographic attributes of gender, age, and ethnicity, aspects of maternal psychopathology, and both mother's and children's cognitive functioning. Results revealed that greater child maladjustment was linked with increasing age, Caucasian (as opposed to African American) ethnicity, severity of maternal psychiatric disturbance, higher maternal cognitive abilities (among African Americans) and lower child cognitive abilities (among Caucasians). Limitations of the study are discussed, as are implications of findings for future research.

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Available from: Suniya S. Luthar, Dec 30, 2013
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    • "Studies have also consistently found that the prevalence of child behavior problems increases as cumulative risk factors increase (Conners et al., 2004; Luthar et al., 1998; VandeMark et al., 2005; Whitaker et al., 2006). These findings are particularly concerning given that in 2002 the National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that nearly two million women of child rearing age suffered from co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders (Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined children of substance-abusing mothers approximately 10 years after mothers' admission to drug abuse treatment, and identified maternal characteristics that may be risk factors for child behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist. Data were obtained from 396 mothers who were included in a sample consecutively admitted to 44 treatment programs in 13 California counties during 2000-2002. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at both intake and follow-up. Each mother reported on one child 6-17 years of age. All of the children had been exposed to drugs, either in utero or postnatally. At follow-up about 22% of the children demonstrated borderline or clinical range problem behaviors. Child behavior problems were related significantly to the mothers' ethnicity (lower among Hispanics relative to white), and problem severity in family/social relationship and mental health, marginally related to her prior medical/health problem, and not related to severity of alcohol, drug, legal and employment problems. Assisting mothers to address their family/social relationship and psychological problems may have an added value to prevent or reduce behavioral problems of their children.
    Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 05/2013; 19(2). DOI:10.1177/1359104513486999 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Parenting among mothers with substance abuse issues may be impaired by the primacy of satisfying their addiction over the welfare of themselves and their children, the emotional lability that is associated with intoxication or withdrawal, the impairment from chronic drug use, and their consequent unavailability to their children [9]. Further, women with substance abuse issues often have high levels of comorbid psychopathology and personality problems [10-13], which can impair emotional responsiveness and cognitive abilities and negatively impact parenting [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Integrated treatment programs (those that include on-site pregnancy-, parenting-, or child-related services with addiction services) were developed to break the intergenerational cycle of addiction, dysfunctional parenting, and poor outcomes for mothers and children, yet there has been no systematic review of studies of parenting outcomes. As part of larger systematic review to examine the effectiveness of integrated programs for mothers with substance abuse issues, we performed a systematic review of studies published from 1990 to 2011 with data on parenting outcomes. Literature search strategies included online bibliographic database searches, checking printed sources, and requests to researchers. Studies were included if all participants were mothers with substance abuse problems at baseline, the treatment program included at least one specific substance use treatment and at least one parenting or child service, and there were quantitative data on parenting outcomes. We summarized data on parenting skills and capacity outcomes. There were 24 cohort studies, 3 quasi-experimental studies, and 4 randomized trials. In the three randomized trials comparing integrated programs to addiction treatment-as-usual (N = 419), most improvements in parenting skills favored integrated programs and most effect sizes indicated that this advantage was small, ds = -0.02 to 0.94. Results for child protection services involvement did not differ by group. In the three studies that examined factors associated with treatment effects, parenting improvements were associated with attachment-based parenting interventions, children residing in the treatment facility, and improvements in maternal mental health. This is the first systematic review of studies evaluating the effectiveness of integrated programs on parenting. The limited available evidence supports integrated programs, as findings suggest that they are associated with improvements in parenting skills. However, more research is required comparing integrated programs to addiction treatment-as-usual. This review highlights the need for improved methodology, study quality, and reporting to improve our understanding of how best to meet the parenting needs of women with substance abuse issues.
    Harm Reduction Journal 03/2012; 9(1):14. DOI:10.1186/1477-7517-9-14 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Most information about family-centred care models for children of drug users comes from developed countries [12-14,16,31,32]. As Zuckerman notes, an addicted mother's interest in her baby is often the "healthiest" part of her life. "
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    ABSTRACT: Injection drug users and female sex workers are two of the populations most at risk for becoming infected with HIV in countries with concentrated epidemics. Many of the adults who fall into these categories are also parents, but little is known about the vulnerabilities faced by their children, their children's sources of resilience, or programmes providing services to these often fragile families. This review synthesizes evidence from disparate sources describing the vulnerabilities and resilience of the children of female sex workers and drug users, and documents some models of care that have been put in place to assist them. A large literature assessing the vulnerability and resilience of children of drug users and alcoholics in developed countries was found. Research on the situation of the children of sex workers is extremely limited. Children of drug users and sex workers can face unique risks, stigma and discrimination, but both child vulnerability and resilience are associated in the drug use literature with the physical and mental health of parents and family context. Family-centred interventions have been implemented in low- and middle-income contexts, but they tend to be small, piecemeal and struggling to meet demand; they are poorly documented, and most have not been formally evaluated. We present preliminary descriptive data from an organization working with pregnant and new mothers who are drug users in Ukraine and from an organization providing services to sex workers and their families in Zambia. Because parents' drug use or sex work is often illegal and hidden, identifying their children can be difficult and may increase children's vulnerability and marginalization. Researchers and service providers, therefore, need to proceed with caution when attempting to reach these populations, but documentation and evaluation of current programmes should be prioritized.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 06/2010; 13 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S6. DOI:10.1186/1758-2652-13-S2-S6 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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