Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) catalyzes a major pathway in histamine metabolism. Levels of HNMT activity in humans are regulated by inheritance. We set out to study the molecular basis for this genetic regulation. Northern blot analysis showed that HNMT is highly expressed in the kidney, so we determined levels of enzyme activity and thermal stability in 127 human renal biopsy samples. DNA was isolated from 12 kidney samples with widely different HNMT phenotypes, and exons of the HNMT gene were amplified with the polymerase chain reaction. In these 12 samples, we observed a C314T transition that resulted in a Thr105Ile change in encoded amino acid, as well as an A939G transition within the 3'-untranslated region. All remaining renal biopsy samples then were genotyped for these two variant sequences. Frequencies of the alleles encoding Thr105 and Ile105 in the 114 samples studied were 0.90 and 0.10, respectively, whereas frequencies for the nucleotide A939 and G alleles were 0.79 and 0.21, respectively. Kidney samples with the allele encoding Ile105 had significantly lower levels of HNMT activity and thermal stability than did those with the allele that encoded Thr105. These observations were confirmed by transient expression in COS-1 cells of constructs that contained all four alleles for these two polymorphisms. COS-1 cells transfected with the Ile105 allele had significantly lower HNMT activity and immunoreactive HNMT protein than did those transfected with the Thr105 allele. These observations will make it possible to test the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms for HNMT may play a role in the pathophysiology of human disease.
"The 939A>G polymorphism is a common SNP in HNMT.15 A study in a European population reported no association between 939A>G and food allergy,20 and a study in an Indian population found no association of this polymorphism with asthma.18 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) catalyzes one of two major histamine metabolic pathways. Histamine is a mediator of pruritus in atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HNMT polymorphisms and AD in children.
We genotyped 763 Korean children for allelic determinants at four polymorphic sites in the HNMT gene: -465T>C, -413C>T, 314C>T, and 939A>G. Genotyping was performed using a TaqMan fluorogenic 5' nuclease assay. The functional effect of the 939A>G polymorphism was analyzed.
Of the 763 children, 520 had eczema and 542 had atopy. Distributions of the genotype and allele frequencies of the HNMT 314C>T polymorphism were significantly associated with non-atopic eczema (P=0.004), and those of HNMT 939A>G were significantly associated with eczema in the atopy groups (P=0.048). Frequency distributions of HNMT -465T>C and -413C>T were not associated with eczema. Subjects who were AA homozygous or AG heterozygous for 939A>G showed significantly higher immunoglobulin E levels than subjects who were GG homozygous (P=0.009). In U937 cells, the variant genotype reporter construct had significantly higher mRNA stability (P<0.001) and HNMT enzyme activity (P<0.001) than the common genotype.
Polymorphisms in HNMT appear to confer susceptibility to AD in Korean children.
"The HNMT gene is located in chromosome 2q22.1. One common nonsynonymous SNP causing Thr105Ile amino-acid substitution (rs1801105) is associated with reduced thermal stability and decreased HNMT activity , . No other nonsynonymous SNPs with frequencies over 0.01 have been described for this gene . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the drugs most frequently involved in hypersensitivity drug reactions. Histamine is released in the allergic response to NSAIDs and is responsible for some of the clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical association of functional polymorphisms in the genes coding for enzymes involved in histamine homeostasis with hypersensitivity response to NSAIDs. We studied a cohort of 442 unrelated Caucasian patients with hypersensitivity to NSAIDs. Patients who experienced three or more episodes with two or more different NSAIDs were included. If this requirement was not met diagnosis was established by challenge. A total of 414 healthy unrelated controls ethnically matched with patients and from the same geographic area were recruited. Analyses of the SNPs rs17740607, rs2073440, rs1801105, rs2052129, rs10156191, rs1049742 and rs1049793 in the HDC, HNMT and DAO genes were carried out by means of TaqMan assays. The detrimental DAO 16 Met allele (rs10156191), which causes decreased metabolic capacity, is overrepresented among patients with crossed-hypersensitivity to NSAIDs with an OR = 1.7 (95% CI = 1.3–2.1; Pc = 0.0003) with a gene-dose effect (P = 0.0001). The association was replicated in two populations from different geographic areas (Pc = 0.008 and Pc = 0.004, respectively).
Conclusions and implications
The DAO polymorphism rs10156191 which causes impaired metabolism of circulating histamine is associated with the clinical response in crossed-hypersensitivity to NSAIDs and could be used as a biomarker of response.
PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e47571. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047571 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Lower brain HNMT activity in the brain of patients with AD could represent a compensatory mechanism leading to the increase in histamine levels . Although Ile105 allele is connected with lower HNMT activity in vivo  and in vitro  , we did not confirm the presumption of a higher frequency of Ile allele carriers among patients with AD. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several abnormalities, including lower histamine levels in brain, elevated serum histamine and degeneration of histaminergic neurons in tuberomammillary nucleus, were described in the histaminergic system of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Histamine is a central neurotransmitter with several functions in brain including regulation of memory, cognition, locomotion, and is degraded in part by histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT). A common Thr105Ile polymorphism within HNMT gene results in decreased enzyme activity. The Thr105Ile polymorphism was associated with Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), asthma and alcoholism, thus we tested possible association of HNMT functional polymorphism with AD. We have tested 256 AD cases and 1190 healthy controls of Croatian origin. Thr105Ile polymorphism was determined by TaqMan RT-PCR Genotyping Assay and EcoRV digestion. Prevalence of functional HNMT polymorphism among all tested groups was similar and frequency of less active Ile105 variant was 11.5% among AD patients and 13.4% for healthy controls (p=0.26, X(2)=1.25). Our results indicate lack of the association of HNMT Thr105Ile functional polymorphism with Alzheimer's disease.
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