Biomechanics of the knee during closed kinetic chain and open kinetic chain exercises.
ABSTRACT Although closed (CKCE) and open (OKCE) kinetic chain exercises are used in athletic training and clinical environments, few studies have compared knee joint biomechanics while these exercises are performed dynamically. The purpose of this study was to quantify knee forces and muscle activity in CKCE (squat and leg press) and OKCE (knee extension).
Ten male subjects performed three repetitions of each exercise at their 12-repetition maximum. Kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data were calculated using video cameras (60 Hz), force transducers (960 Hz), and EMG (960 Hz). Mathematical muscle modeling and optimization techniques were employed to estimate internal muscle forces.
Overall, the squat generated approximately twice as much hamstring activity as the leg press and knee extensions. Quadriceps muscle activity was greatest in CKCE when the knee was near full flexion and in OKCE when the knee was near full extension. OKCE produced more rectus femoris activity while CKCE produced more vasti muscle activity. Tibiofemoral compressive force was greatest in CKCE near full flexion and in OKCE near full extension. Peak tension in the posterior cruciate ligament was approximately twice as great in CKCE, and increased with knee flexion. Tension in the anterior cruciate ligament was present only in OKCE, and occurred near full extension. Patellofemoral compressive force was greatest in CKCE near full flexion and in the mid-range of the knee extending phase in OKCE.
An understanding of these results can help in choosing appropriate exercises for rehabilitation and training.
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ABSTRACT: The squat exercise was usually performed with varying feet and hip angles by different populations. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast the three-dimensional knee angles, moments, and forces during dynamic squat exercises with varying feet and hip angles. Lower extremity motions and ground reaction forces for fifteen healthy subjects (9 females and 6 males) were recorded while performing the squat with feet pointing straight ahead (neutral squat), 30º feet adduction (squeeze squat) and 30º feet abduction (outward squat). Nonparametric procedures were used to detect differences in the interested measures between the conditions. No significant difference in three-dimensional peak knee angles was observed for three squat exercises (p>0.05), however, the overall tendency of knee rotations was affected by varying feet and hip positions. During the whole cycle, the outward squat mainly displayed adduction moments, while the neutral and squeeze squat demonstrated abduction moments. Peak abduction moments were significantly affected by feet positions (p<0.05). Moreover, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint forces progressively increased as knee flexed and decreased as knee extended, yet peak forces were not affected by varying feet positions (p>0.05). In conclusion, a neutral position is recommended to perform the squat exercise, while the squeeze squat and outward squat might contribute to the occurrence of joint pathologies.Journal of Human Kinetics 12/2013; 39(1):59-66. DOI:10.2478/hukin-2013-0068 · 0.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The concept of kinematic chains has been systematically applied to biological systems since the 1950s. The course of a ski jump can be characterized as a change between closed and open kinematic chains. The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship between adjacent segments within the ski jumper's body's kinematic chain during the in-run phase of the ski jump. The in-run positions of 267 elite male ski jumpers who participated in the FIS World Cup events in Innsbruck, Austria, between 1992 and 2001 were analyzed (656 jumps). Two-dimensional (2-D) kinematic data were collected from the bodies of the subjects. Relationships between adjacent segments of the kinematic chain in the ski jumper's body at the in-run position are greater nearer the chain's ground contact. The coefficient of determination between the ankle and knee joint angles is 0.67. Changes in the segments' positions in the kinematic chain of the ski jumper's body are stable during longitudinal assessment. Changes in shank and thigh positions, in the sense of increase or decrease, are the same.Journal of Human Kinetics 12/2013; 39(1):67-72. DOI:10.2478/hukin-2013-0069 · 0.70 Impact Factor