Mice lacking inducible nitric-oxide synthase are more susceptible to herpes simplex virus infection despite enhanced Th1 cell responses.

Division of Virology, University of Glasgow, UK.
Journal of General Virology (Impact Factor: 3.53). 05/1998; 79 ( Pt 4):825-30.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mice deficient in the inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), constructed by gene-targeting, were significantly more susceptible to herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 infection, displayed a delayed clearance of virus from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and exhibited an increase in the frequency of virus reactivation in DRG compared with similarly infected heterozygous mice. The infected iNOS-deficient mice developed enhanced Th1-type immune responses and their spleen cells produced higher concentrations of IL-12 than similarly infected heterozygous mice. This finding suggests that iNOS plays an important role in resistance against HSV-1 infection. Furthermore, nitric oxide (NO) may block the development of Th1 cells via inhibition of IL-12 synthesis and thereby play a role in immune regulation.

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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from L-arginine in the human respiratory tract by enzymes of the NO synthase (NOS) family. Levels of NO in exhaled air are increased in asthma, and measurement of exhaled NO has been advocated as a noninvasive tool to monitor the underlying inflammatory process. However, the relation of NO to disease pathophysiology is uncertain, and in particular the fundamental question of whether it should be viewed primarily as beneficial or harmful remains unanswered. Exogenously administered NO has both bronchodilator and bronchoprotective properties. Although it is unlikely that NO is an important regulator of basal airway tone, there is good evidence that endogenous NO release exerts a protective effect against various bronchoconstrictor stimuli. This response is thought to involve one or both of the constitutive NOS isoforms, endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS). Therefore, inhibition of these enzymes is unlikely to be therapeutically useful in asthma and indeed may worsen disease control. On the other hand, the high concentrations of NO in asthma, which are believed to reflect upregulation of inducible NOS (iNOS) by proinflammatory cytokines, may produce various deleterious effects. These include increased vascular permeability, damage to the airway epithelium, and promotion of inflammatory cell infiltration. However, the possible effects of iNOS inhibition on allergic inflammation in asthma have not yet been described and studies in animal models have yielded inconsistent findings. Thus, the evidence to suggest that inhibition of iNOS would be a useful therapeutic strategy in asthma is limited at present. More definitive information will require studies combining agents that potently and specifically target individual NOS isoforms with direct measurement of inflammatory markers.
    Treatments in Respiratory Medicine 01/2004; 3(2).
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    ABSTRACT: WHEN AN ANTIVIRAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IS GENERATED, A BALANCE MUST BE REACHED BETWEEN TWO OPPOSING PATHWAYS: the production of proinflammatory and cytotoxic effectors that drive a robust antiviral immune response to control the infection and regulators that function to limit or blunt an excessive immune response to minimize immune-mediated pathology and repair tissue damage. Myeloid cells, including monocytes and macrophages, play an important role in this balance, particularly through the activities of the arginine-hydrolyzing enzymes nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2; iNOS) and arginase 1 (Arg1). Nitric oxide (NO) production by iNOS is an important proinflammatory mediator, whereas Arg1-expressing macrophages contribute to the resolution of inflammation and wound repair. In the context of viral infections, expression of these enzymes can result in a variety of outcomes for the host. NO has direct antiviral properties against some viruses, whereas during other virus infections NO can mediate immunopathology and/or inhibit the antiviral immune response to promote chronic infection. Arg1 activity not only has important wound healing functions but can also inhibit the antiviral immune response during some viral infections. Thus, depending on the specific virus and the tissue(s) involved, the activity of both of these arginine-hydrolyzing enzymes can either exacerbate or limit the severity of virus-induced disease. In this review, we will discuss a variety of viral infections, including HIV, SARS-CoV, LCMV, HCV, RSV, and others, where myeloid cells influence the control and clearance of the virus from the host, as well as the severity and resolution of tissue damage, via the activities of iNOS and/or Arg1. Clearly, monocyte/macrophage activation and arginine metabolism will continue to be important areas of investigation in the context of viral infections.
    Frontiers in Immunology 09/2014; 5:428.

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