Children who can't smell the coffee: isolated congenital anosmia.
ABSTRACT Two children with isolated congenital anosmia, a rare syndrome of deficient restricted neuronal migration, are presented with early diagnosis confirmed by standardized smell testing and detailed neuroimaging studies. Recognition of this disorder and its spectrum of presentations provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the olfactory system.
- SourceAvailable from: Dani Bercovich[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Anosmia affects the western world population, mostly the elderly, reaching to 5% in subjects over the age of 45 years and strongly lowering their quality of life. A smaller minority (about 0.01%) is born without a sense of smell, afflicted with congenital general anosmia (CGA). No causative genes for human CGA have been identified yet, except for some syndromic cases such as Kallman syndrome. In mice, however, deletion of any of the 3 main olfactory transduction components (guanidine triphosphate binding protein, adenylyl cyclase, and the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-gated channel) causes profound reduction of physiological responses to odorants. In an attempt to identify human CGA-related mutations, we performed whole-genome linkage analysis in affected families, but no significant linkage signals were observed, probably due to the small size of families analyzed. We further carried out direct mutation screening in the 3 main olfactory transduction genes in 64 unrelated anosmic individuals. No potentially causative mutations were identified, indicating that transduction gene variations underlie human CGA rarely and that mutations in other genes have to be identified. The screened genes were found to be under purifying selection, suggesting that they play a crucial functional role not only in olfaction but also potentially in additional pathways.Chemical Senses 02/2007; 32(1):21-30. DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjl032 · 3.28 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Anosmias with chromosomal disorders has been well investigated. However, isolated anosmia (IA) has received less attention, although it occurs more frequently. We compared frontobasal structures in patients with IA since birth or early childhood with those in control subjects. Imaging findings obtained in 16 patients with IA were compared with those obtained in eight control subjects. Imaging was performed with a standard quadrature head coil at 1.5 T. T1-weighted spin-echo (coronal plane perpendicular to frontal skull base; section thickness, 3 mm; pixels, 0.43 x 0.39 mm) and sagittal T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (voxels, 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 mm) sequences were performed. We assessed the length and depth of the olfactory sulcus, olfactory bulb volume, and olfactory sulcus depth in the plane of the posterior tangent through the eyeballs (PPTE). Five patients with IA had bilateral hypoplastic olfactory bulbs. Three patients with IA had hypoplastic olfactory bulbs on the right and aplastic olfactory bulbs on the left. Eight patients with IA had bilaterally aplastic olfactory bulbs. The depth of the olfactory sulcus at the level of the PPTE was smaller in patients with IA than in control subjects. The depth of the olfactory sulcus was greater on the right than on the left, and there was no overlap. Among patients with IA, the depth of the olfactory sulcus differed significantly between those with and those without visible olfactory tracts. The depth of the olfactory sulcus at the level of the PPTE reflects the presence of olfactory tracts. The presence or absence of the olfactory tract may therefore have some association with cortical growth of the olfactory sulcus region. The olfactory sulcus is deeper on the right than on the left, particularly in patients with IA. We speculate that olfaction may be processed predominantly in the right hemisphere.American Journal of Neuroradiology 02/2002; 23(1):157-64. · 3.68 Impact Factor
- Journal of Medical Genetics 05/2004; 41(4):299-303. · 5.64 Impact Factor