Children who can't smell the coffee: isolated congenital anosmia.
ABSTRACT Two children with isolated congenital anosmia, a rare syndrome of deficient restricted neuronal migration, are presented with early diagnosis confirmed by standardized smell testing and detailed neuroimaging studies. Recognition of this disorder and its spectrum of presentations provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the olfactory system.
- SourceAvailable from: Keivan Majidzadeh-AJournal of Medical Genetics 05/2004; 41(4):299-303. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To find an efficient tool for testing olfactory function in children and use it to investigate a group of children with CHARGE (coloboma, congenital heart disease, choanal atresia, mental and growth retardation, genital anomalies, and ear malformations and hearing loss) syndrome. We adapted for children an olfaction test that had just been validated in an adult French population and investigated a control group of 25 healthy children aged 6 to 13 years. We then tested the olfactory capacity of a group of 14 children with CHARGE syndrome, aged 6 to 18 years. A questionnaire was completed with the parents about their children's feeding difficulties and their ability to recognize odors in everyday life. We recorded and scored the histories of feeding behavior anomalies, the visual and auditory status, and current intellectual levels. MRI of the olfactory tracts and bulbs was analyzed for 9 of 14 children. We showed that healthy children have similar olfactory function to that of the adult control group, which was representative of the general population, without any difference for either gender or age. We also showed that all children with CHARGE syndrome had olfactory deficiency. Half of them were anosmic, and the others had olfactory residual function (hyposmic). We found no association between olfactory deficiency and feeding behavior, visual or auditory impairment, or intellectual level. Parental subjective evaluations were accurate for only half of the group. All of the MRIs showed anomalies of the olfactory tracts and bulbs varying from moderate hypoplasia to complete aplasia, without any relation between the radiologic and the functional results. Olfaction can be assessed in children, even the young and disabled. Our results support the proposition that rhinencephalon anomalies should be included as a major criterion for the diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome.PEDIATRICS 08/2005; 116(1):e81-8. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anosmias with chromosomal disorders has been well investigated. However, isolated anosmia (IA) has received less attention, although it occurs more frequently. We compared frontobasal structures in patients with IA since birth or early childhood with those in control subjects. Imaging findings obtained in 16 patients with IA were compared with those obtained in eight control subjects. Imaging was performed with a standard quadrature head coil at 1.5 T. T1-weighted spin-echo (coronal plane perpendicular to frontal skull base; section thickness, 3 mm; pixels, 0.43 x 0.39 mm) and sagittal T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (voxels, 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 mm) sequences were performed. We assessed the length and depth of the olfactory sulcus, olfactory bulb volume, and olfactory sulcus depth in the plane of the posterior tangent through the eyeballs (PPTE). Five patients with IA had bilateral hypoplastic olfactory bulbs. Three patients with IA had hypoplastic olfactory bulbs on the right and aplastic olfactory bulbs on the left. Eight patients with IA had bilaterally aplastic olfactory bulbs. The depth of the olfactory sulcus at the level of the PPTE was smaller in patients with IA than in control subjects. The depth of the olfactory sulcus was greater on the right than on the left, and there was no overlap. Among patients with IA, the depth of the olfactory sulcus differed significantly between those with and those without visible olfactory tracts. The depth of the olfactory sulcus at the level of the PPTE reflects the presence of olfactory tracts. The presence or absence of the olfactory tract may therefore have some association with cortical growth of the olfactory sulcus region. The olfactory sulcus is deeper on the right than on the left, particularly in patients with IA. We speculate that olfaction may be processed predominantly in the right hemisphere.American Journal of Neuroradiology 02/2002; 23(1):157-64. · 3.17 Impact Factor