Differentiation of acute cortical and subcortical ischemic stroke by risk factors and clinical examination findings.
ABSTRACT Differentiation between acute cortical and subcortical ischemic stroke may be problematic when cortical stroke presents without obvious cortical deficits such as aphasia, neglect or hemianopia. This study explores stroke risk factors and clinical variables that may assist in this differentiation.
Records of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, examined within 72 h of symptom onset, were reviewed. Stroke type was verified by clinical course and follow-up imaging. Stroke risk factors and acute examination findings were compared by odds ratios and positive predictive values for cortical and subcortical stroke.
For 355 patients studied, 237 had cortical stroke and 118 had subcortical stroke. Odds ratios for cortical stroke were highest for atrial fibrillation by EKG (OR = 4.77, CI = 2.08-10.94), recent hospitalization (OR = 4.51, CI = 2.39-8.53) and nonalert mental status (OR = 4.50, CI = 2.29-8.87). Possible cardioembolic condition, ischemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease were also significant, but hypertension, age and diabetes mellitus were not significantly different for the stroke subtypes. Cortical deficits were absent in 19.4% of cortical stroke patients on initial examination. Predictive models were generated based on the presence or absence of cortical deficits and the interaction of significant risk factors with degree of motor deficit.
There are clinical features that, in addition to initial examination, may help differentiate cortical from subcortical ischemic stroke. These features may be relevant to both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to acute stroke.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between different kinds of ischemic lesions and cerebrovascular reactivity (CR) and to evaluate their relationships with the major risk factors for stroke. We evaluated CR using the breath-holding index technique during bilateral transcranial Doppler monitoring of flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries of 41 consecutive patients attending our clinic for a recent, first-ever, ischemic stroke and in 15 control subjects. Based on the location of the lesion determined by computed tomography, the following 3 types of infarctions were identified: cortical (or territorial), single subcortical, and subcortical with multiple silent subcortical infarctions. Patients with a condition of severe carotid artery stenosis or occlusion, which in itself could account for altered CR, were excluded from this study. All physiological and pathologic conditions that could possibly cause an impairment in CR were recorded. The breath-holding index was significantly lower in the multiple subcortical infarctions group than in the control subjects (P < .001), single subcortical infarctions group (P < .01), and cortical infarctions group (P < .01). In all of the groups male sex (P < .05) and a history of hypertension (P < .05), regardless of whether hypertension was treated, correlated with low CR. The multiple regression analysis indicated that the only significant factor able to influence the breath-holding index was the type of lesion. Nonstenotic patients with first-ever stroke who had a recent symptomatic subcortical infarction associated with multiple silent infarctions seem to have an impaired cerebrovascular reserve capacity. The strong association of subcortical infarctions with multiple silent infarctions with low CR indicates the role of small vessel vasculopathy and hypoperfusion as possible pathogenetic mechanisms of subcortical infarctions with multiple silent infarctions.JAMA Neurology 05/2001; 58(4):577-81. · 7.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Differences in risk factors between lacunar and nonlacunar infarcts might support a distinct arterial pathological process underlying lacunar infarction. We did a systematic review of studies comparing risk factors in patients with lacunar versus nonlacunar infarction. For each risk factor, we calculated study-specific and pooled relative risks (RRs) for lacunar versus nonlacunar infarction. A total of 16 of 28 studies included risk factors in their ischemic stroke subtype definitions. Hypertension and diabetes appeared commoner among patients with lacunar versus nonlacunar infarction. However, analyses confined to studies using risk factor-free ischemic subtype definitions found only a marginal excess of hypertension with lacunar versus nonlacunar infarction (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.19) and no difference for diabetes (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.09). Atrial fibrillation and carotid stenosis were associated more with nonlacunar than lacunar infarction but less so when only studies using risk factor-free classifications were considered. Otherwise, there was no evidence of differences in risk factor profiles. Risk factor-free ischemic stroke subtype classification methods should be used for comparing risk factor profiles between lacunar and nonlacunar subtypes.Stroke 05/2005; 36(4):891-901. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is still one of the major health problems because of its rising incidence and the modest therapeutic results. The paper surveys the statistical data, the risk factors, the preneoplastic ductal lesions, the hormonal sensitivity, the possible transdifferentiation in the endocrine and exocrine parts and the possibilities for chemoprevention. Hungary is peculiar among the European countries because during the last 50 years the incidence of pancreatic cancer has displayed a 15-fold increase. Apart from smoking, additional risk factors seem to be important, and recently a puzzling association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and pancreatic cancer was found. First-degree relatives of patients with pancreatic cancer are also at increased risk of this tumor. The term pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) seems yet to be established, but the dynamics of these lesions needs to be further elucidated. Several lines of firmly established data indicate the hormonal sensitivity of this tumor, but still an unexplained discrepancy exists between the experimental and the clinical results. In addition to the somatostatin analogs, anti-gastrin vaccine is being tested. The mixed exocrine-endocrine tumors might suggest a real possibility of transdifferentiation between different compartments of the pancreas. Finally, the paper outlines the available data about the possibility of chemoprevention, including the role of cyclooxygenase inhibitors.Pathology & Oncology Research 02/2003; 9(4):252-63. · 1.56 Impact Factor