Compensation of Endothelin-1-Induced Coronary Vasoconstriction
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Semmelweis University of Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.14). 02/1998; 31 Suppl 1:S106-8. DOI: 10.1097/00005344-199800001-00032
The vasodilator capacity of the coronaries was determined by the reactive hyperemia (RH) test in open-chest anesthetized dogs. The myocardial release of adenine nucleosides (adenosine and inosine) was measured by the HPLC-UV method. In group I (n = 9) after the control RH test, a bolus injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1; 1.0 nmol i.c.) was administered and was followed by a second RH test. In group II (n = 9), glibenclamide (GLIB) was infused continuously (1.0 mumol/min i.c.) and RH tests were performed during the control period and then before and after bolus injection of ET-1. In contrast to the significant reduction of the RH response after ET-1 in group I and after GLIB in group II, the nucleoside release into the coronary sinus during the first minute of the RH test was significantly higher (adenosine release 0.05 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.10 +/- 0.04 mumol, and 0.02 +/- 0.00 vs. 0.08 +/- 0.02 mumol; p < 0.05). Injection of ET-1 did not result in further RH reduction in GLIB-pretreated dogs (group II) but significantly increased nucleoside release. High doses of ET-1 activated the metabolic compensatory mechanisms of the myocardium and thereby increased the release of adenine nucleosides into the venous blood of the heart. However, whether these metabolites can exert any significant compensatory vasodilator effects appears doubtful.
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ABSTRACT: Endothelin elicits long-lasting vasoconstriction in the coronary bed. This remarkable spastic response raises the question whether or not the metabolic adaptive mechanisms of the coronaries are activated under endothelin effect. The role of the compensatory mediators adenosine and inosine was investigated before and after intracoronary (i.c.) administration of endothelin-1 (ET-1, 1.0 nmol) using 1-min reactive hyperemia (RH) tests on in situ dog hearts (n=15) with or without blocking the ATP-sensitive potassium (K+(ATP)) channels by glibenclamide (GLIB, 1.0 micromol min(-1), i.c.). The release of adenosine and inosine via the coronary sinus was measured by HPLC during the first minute of RH. Endothelin-1 reduced baseline coronary blood flow (CBF) and RH response (hyperemic excess flow (EF) control vs. ET-1: 81.7+/-13.6 vs. 43.4+/-10.9 ml, P<0.01), while it increased the net nucleoside release (adenosine, control vs. ET-1: 58.9+/-20.4 vs. 113.7+/-39.4 nmol, P<0.05; inosine: 242.1+/-81.8 vs. 786.9+/-190.8 nmol, P<0.05). GLIB treatment alone did not change baseline CBF but also reduced RH significantly and increased nucleoside release (EF control vs. GLIB: 72.1+/-11.7 vs. 31.9+/-5.5 ml, P<0.01; adenosine: 18.8+/-4.6 vs. 63.0+/-24.8 nmol, P<0.05; inosine: 113.0+/-37.2 vs. 328.2+/-127.5 nmol, P<0.05). Endothelin-1 on GLIB-treated coronaries further diminished RH and increased nucleoside release (EF: 21.5+/-8.0 ml, P<0.05 vs. GLIB; adenosine: 75.3+/-28.1 nmol, NS; inosine: 801.9+/-196.6 nmol, P<0.05 vs. GLIB). The data show that ET-1 reduces metabolic adaptive capacity of the coronaries, and this phenomenon is due to decreased vascular responsiveness and not to the blockade of ischemic mediator release from the myocardium. The coronary effect of ET-1 may partially be dependent on K+(ATP) channels.Acta Physiologica Hungarica 02/2001; 88(1):35-46. DOI:10.1556/APhysiol.88.2001.1.4 · 0.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been shown that the adenosine concentration in the pericardial fluid of the normal heart is higher by one order of magnitude than that of the venous plasma. A further increase in the pericardial adenosine concentration was also demonstrated in myocardial ischaemia or hypoxia. It was proposed that pericardial nucleoside levels may represent the interstitial concentrations of the adenine nucleosides. An experimental model was designed to determine the intrapericardial concentrations of adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine during coronary spasm provoked by intracoronary administration of endothelin-1 (ET-1; 0.08+/-0.02 nmol/g of myocardial tissue). In the in situ dog heart (n=10), adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine concentrations were determined by HPLC in fluid samples collected from the closed pericardial sac before and after ET-1 administration, and from the systemic arterial blood. Systemic blood pressure, heart rate and standard ECG were registered continuously. We found that the nucleoside concentrations in the infusate samples increased significantly during coronary spasm [adenosine, 1.49+/-0.44 compared with 0.37+/-0.07 microM (P<0.05); inosine, 27.43+/-11.51 compared with 0.47+/-0.11 microM (P<0.05); hypoxanthine, 21.17+/-6.49 compared with 4.91+/-1.24 microM (P<0.05)], while a significant decrease in blood pressure and an elevation in ECG ST segments were observed. The levels of the purine metabolites did not change in the systemic blood. The data indicate that changes in adenine nucleoside levels measured in pericardial infusate samples reflect activation of coronary metabolic adaptation in this model of spastic ischaemia, and that pericardial nucleoside levels may characterize alterations in interstitial adenine nucleoside concentrations.Clinical Science 08/2002; 103 Suppl 48(s2002):198S-201S. DOI:10.1042/CS103S198S · 5.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pericardial fluid may accumulate endogenous regulatory agents, such as catecholamines, endothelin or adenine nucleosides. However, very little information is available on the cardiovascular effects of intrapericardial (i.p.) catecholamines and their interaction with the endogenous endothelins and adenine nucleosides. The cardiovascular effects of increasing doses of i.p.- administered dopamine boluses (0.06-8 [mu]mol/kg, n = 8) were studied in the in situ canine heart: systemic blood pressure, heart rate and left ventricular dP/dt were recorded, and pericardial infusate samples were obtained to measure the changes in endothelin-1 (ET-1), adenosine and inosine levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography methods, respectively). The responses to i.p. dopamine were compared with the effects of i.p. norepinephrine boluses (0.004-0.5 [mu]mol/kg, n = 8). Dopamine elicited dose-dependent increases of heart rate (P < 0.01), and the highest dose of dopamine resulted in significant elevation in dP/dt and blood pressure (P < 0.01) with a nearly twofold increase of i.p. ET-1 (from 14.3 +/- 0.1 pg/mL to 26.1 +/- 0.1 pg/mL, P < 0.02) and a more than threefold augmentation of i.p. adenosine (from 2.9 +/- 0.5 [mu]M to 11.1 +/- 3.0 [mu]M, P < 0.05), but not of inosine levels. Similar responses were obtained with i.p. norepinephrine. The results confirm that i.p. catecholamines exert significant hemodynamic effects and modulate ET-1 and adenosine release from the heart. However, the pattern of catecholamine actions initiated from the pericardium may characteristically differ from that of intravascular ones. (C) 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 10/2004; 44(Supplement 1). DOI:10.1097/01.fjc.0000166256.12229.d6 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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