Compensation of Endothelin-1-Induced Coronary Vasoconstriction
ABSTRACT The vasodilator capacity of the coronaries was determined by the reactive hyperemia (RH) test in open-chest anesthetized dogs. The myocardial release of adenine nucleosides (adenosine and inosine) was measured by the HPLC-UV method. In group I (n = 9) after the control RH test, a bolus injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1; 1.0 nmol i.c.) was administered and was followed by a second RH test. In group II (n = 9), glibenclamide (GLIB) was infused continuously (1.0 mumol/min i.c.) and RH tests were performed during the control period and then before and after bolus injection of ET-1. In contrast to the significant reduction of the RH response after ET-1 in group I and after GLIB in group II, the nucleoside release into the coronary sinus during the first minute of the RH test was significantly higher (adenosine release 0.05 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.10 +/- 0.04 mumol, and 0.02 +/- 0.00 vs. 0.08 +/- 0.02 mumol; p < 0.05). Injection of ET-1 did not result in further RH reduction in GLIB-pretreated dogs (group II) but significantly increased nucleoside release. High doses of ET-1 activated the metabolic compensatory mechanisms of the myocardium and thereby increased the release of adenine nucleosides into the venous blood of the heart. However, whether these metabolites can exert any significant compensatory vasodilator effects appears doubtful.
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ABSTRACT: Secretion of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and activation of cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels are facilitated under myocardial metabolic stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ET-1 on KATP channels and to assess underlying mechanisms in ventricular myocytes. Single channel currents were measured with the voltage-clamp technique in cell-attached patches from enzymatically-isolated single guinea pig ventricular myocytes. In some experiments, the open-cell-attached mode was employed by permeating the membrane with streptolysin-O. ET-1 concentration-dependently inhibited single KATP channel currents, which had been activated by metabolic poisoning, with an IC50 of 3.8 +/- 0.7 pM. BQ-123, an ETA receptor-selective antagonist, reduced the effects of ET-1. ET-1 effects were largely abolished in the myocytes pre-incubated with pertussis toxin. In the open-cell-attached mode, where the intracellular ATP concentration ([ATP]) could be virtually controlled, the effects of ET-1 were abolished. Muscarinic receptor stimulation inhibited the channels in a similar manner to ET-1, whereas beta-adrenoceptor stimulation accelerated channel activation. By analogy, ouabain also inhibited KATP channel activity under metabolic stress presumably because inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump spares subsarcolemmal ATP. ET-1 inhibited the KATP channels that had been reactivated in the continuous presence of ouabain. ET-1 reversibly inhibited KATP channels. This effect appears to be mediated by an increase in subsarcolemmal [ATP] which results from inhibition of adenylate cyclase activities through PTX-sensitive G-proteins coupled to ETA receptors.Cardiovascular Research 02/1997; 33(1):123-30. DOI:10.1016/S0008-6363(96)00186-1 · 5.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that high concentrations of adenosine interact with both a cell surface receptor and with an intracellular site to evoke relaxation of the guinea-pig aorta. The intracellular action of adenosine was investigated in the present study. The purine sensitive 'P-site' did not appear to be involved since other P-site agonists did not consistently evoke relaxation. A major interaction with intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase also appeared unlikely since 1-homocysteine had only minor effects on adenosine-evoked responses. Inhibition of adenosine deaminase attenuated responses evoked by high concentrations of adenosine. The deaminated metabolite of adenosine, inosine, also evoked aortic relaxation. These responses were mediated solely via an intracellular site since they were blocked by an inhibitor of nucleoside-facilitated diffusion but were unaffected by an adenosine receptor antagonist. These results indicate that a major part of the intracellular effect of adenosine is mediated by its deaminated metabolite inosine.European Journal of Pharmacology 03/1986; 121(1):141-5. DOI:10.1016/0014-2999(86)90404-8 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The function of the heart depends critically on an adequate oxygen supply through the coronary arteries. Coronary arteries dilate when the intravascular oxygen tension decreases. Hypoxic vasodilation in isolated, perfused guinea pig hearts can be prevented by glibenclamide, a blocker of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels, and can be mimicked by cromakalim, which opens ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Opening of potassium channels in coronary smooth muscle cells and the subsequent drop in intracellular calcium is probably the major cause of hypoxic and ischemic vasodilation in the mammalian heart.Science 04/1990; 247(4948):1341-4. DOI:10.1126/science.2107575 · 31.48 Impact Factor