Effect of thyroid function on LDL oxidation.

Centro per lo Studio dell'Ipertensione Arteriosa, dell Dislipidemie e dell'Arteriosclerosi, University Gabriele D'Annunzio, School of Medicine, Chieti, Italy.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology (Impact Factor: 6.34). 06/1998; 18(5):732-7. DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.18.5.732
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this study, the effect of different levels of thyroid hormone and metabolic activity on low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation was investigated. Thus, in 16 patients with hyperthyroidism, 16 with hypothyroidism, and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy normolipidemic control subjects, the native LDL content in lipid peroxides, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and lycopene, as well as the susceptibility of these particles to undergo lipid peroxidation, was assessed. Hyperthyroidism was associated with significantly higher lipid peroxidation, as characterized by a higher native LDL content in lipid peroxides, a lower lag phase, and a higher oxidation rate than in the other two groups. This elevated lipid peroxidation was associated with a lower LDL antioxidant concentration. Interestingly, hypothyroid patients showed an intermediate behavior. In fact, in hypothyroidism, LDL oxidation was significantly lower than in hyperthyroidism but higher than in the control group. Hypothyroidism was also characterized by the highest beta-carotene LDL content, whereas vitamin E was significantly lower than in control subjects. In hyperthyroidism but not in the other two groups, LDL oxidation was strongly influenced by free thyroxine blood content. In fact in this group, the native LDL lipid peroxide content and the lag phase were directly and indirectly, respectively, related to free thyroxine blood levels. On the contrary, in hypothyroidism LDL oxidation was strongly and significantly related to serum lipids. In conclusion, both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are characterized by higher levels of LDL oxidation when compared with normolipidemic control subjects. In hyperthyroid patients, the increased lipid peroxidation was strictly related to free thyroxine levels, whereas in hypothyroidism it was strongly influenced by serum lipids.

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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress results from either overproduction of free radicals or insufficiency of several anti-oxidant defense systems. It leads to oxidation of main cellular macromolecules and a resultant molecular dysfunction. Thyroid hormones regulate oxidative metabolism and, thus, play a role in free radical production. Studies evaluating oxidative stress in patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism have been encountered in recent years; however, oxidative status in patients with euthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) was not investigated previously. Thirty-five subjects with euthyroid AIT and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum oxidative status was determined by the measurement of total anti-oxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), and oxidized-low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels. Serum TAS levels were significantly lower (p < 0.001), while serum TOS levels and IMA levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001 and p = 0.020, respectively) in patients compared to controls. In both groups, ox-LDL levels were similar (p = 0.608). Serum TAS levels were negatively correlated with anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG) levels (rho = -0.415, p = 0.001 and rho = -0.484, p < 0.001, respectively). Serum TOS was positively correlated with anti-TG levels (rho = 0.547, p < 0.001). Further, TAS was positively correlated with free T4 levels (r = 0.279, p = 0.043). No correlation was observed between thyrotropin, free T3 levels, and TOS and TAS levels. These results suggest that oxidants are increased, and anti-oxidants are decreased in patients with euthyroid AIT, and oxidative/anti-oxidative balance is shifted to the oxidative side. Increased oxidative stress might have a role in thyroid autoimmunity.
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    ABSTRACT: Levothyroxine (LT4) treatment can lead to iatrogenic hyperthyroidism and oxidative stress that can cause patient discomfort. Oxidative stress is also recognized as one of the causes of chronic diseases and cancer. The prevalence of breast, colorectal, gastric and lung cancer in 18 Italian Regions during 2010 was correlated with the sales of LT4 in 2009. The cancer prevalence was analyzed in women aged 30--84. This age range corresponds to more than 80% of the consumers of the drug and to about 99% of all malignant cancers. The correlation between sales of LT4 and cancers was determined with the technique of Density Ellipses. The age and smoking contribution for lung cancer was determined with the Sequential test. No significant correlation was seen between LT4 sales and breast, colorectal and gastric cancers. A significant correlation was instead found for lung cancer (p < 0.05) corrected for smoking and age. LT4 consumption in Italy is about 0.7 boxes/women/year. There is a correlation between lung cancer and LT4 treatment and oxidative stress caused by LT4 supplementation can be one of the causes. Although we cannot exclude that dysthyroidism needing LT4 supplementation might be the ground for lung cancer itself and measuring oxidative stress could be helpful in avoiding excessive use of the drug.
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