[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate tobacco product constituents, including menthol, if the scientific evidence indicates harm. Few studies, however, have evaluated the health effects of menthol cigarette use.
To investigate associations of cigarette smoking and menthol cigarette use with all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular risk in U.S. adults.
We studied 10,289 adults ≥ 20 years of age who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999-2004 and were followed through December 2006. We also identified studies comparing risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and cancer for menthol and nonmenthol cigarette smokers and estimates were pooled using random-effects models.
Fifty-five percent of participants were never smokers compared to 23%, 17% and 5% of former, current nonmenthol and current menthol cigarette smokers, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for former, current nonmenthol and current menthol cigarette smokers compared to never smokers were 1.24 (0.96, 1.62), 2.40 (1.56, 3.71) and 2.07 (1.20, 3.58), respectively, for all-cause mortality; 0.92 (0.62, 1.37), 2.10 (1.02, 4.31) and 3.48 (1.52, 7.99) for cardiovascular mortality; and 1.91 (1.21, 3.00), 3.82 (2.19, 6.68) and 2.03 (1.00, 4.13) for cancer mortality. Using data from 3 studies of all-cause mortality, 5 of cardiovascular disease and 13 of cancer, the pooled relative risks (95% CI) comparing menthol cigarette smokers to nonmenthol cigarette smokers was 0.94 (0.85, 1.05) for all-cause mortality, 1.28 (0.91, 1.80) for cardiovascular disease and 0.84 (0.76, 0.92) for any cancer.
In a representative sample of U.S. adults, menthol cigarette smoking was associated with increased all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality with no differences compared to nonmenthol cigarettes. In the systematic review, menthol cigarette use was associated with inverse risk of cancer compared to nonmenthol cigarette use with some evidence of an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77941. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077941 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is limited information comparing biomarkers of exposure (BOE) to cigarette smoke in menthol (MS) and non-menthol cigarette smokers (NMS). Objective: To compare BOE to nicotine and carbon monoxide in MS and NMS. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational, ambulatory, multi-centre study in 3341 adult cigarette smokers. Nicotine equivalents (NE) in 24 h urine, NE/cigarette, COHb and serum cotinine were measured. Statistical analyses included analysis of variance and Wilcoxon test. Results: Analyses of variance revealed no statistically significant effects of mentholated cigarettes on NE/24 h, COHb, serum cotinine and NE/cigarette. On average MS smoked 15.0 and NMS 16.8 cigarettes/day. The unadjusted mean differences were as follows: MS had lower NE/24 h (5.4%) and COHb (3.2%), higher serum cotinine (3.0%) and NE/cigarette (5.7%) than NMS. African-Americans MS smoked 40% fewer cigarettes, showed lower NE/24 h (24%) and COHb (10%) and higher NE/cig (29%) and serum cotinine (8%) levels than their White counterparts. Conclusions: Smoking mentholated cigarettes does not increase daily exposure to smoke constituents as measured by NE and COHb. These findings are consistent with the majority of epidemiological studies indicating no difference in smoking related risks between MS and NMS.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 06/2010; DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2009.12.003 · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the 1920s, menthol has been added to cigarettes and used as a characterizing flavor. The health effects of cigarette smoking are well documented, however the health effects of menthol cigarettes as compared to non-menthol cigarettes is less well studied. This review discusses menthol's effects on 1) biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure, 2) toxicity and cellular effects, 3) lung function and respiration, 4) pulmonary and/or vascular function, 5) allergic reactions and inflammation, and 6) tobacco-related diseases. It is concluded that menthol is a biologically active compound that has effects by itself and in conjunction with nicotine, however much of the data on the other areas of interest are inconclusive and firm conclusions cannot be drawn.
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