Associations among antimicrobial drug treatments and antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli of swine on 34 farrow-to-finish farms in Ontario, Canada.
ABSTRACT Logistic regression was used to model associations between antimicrobial treatment and resistance among fecal Escherichia coli of finisher pigs at the farm level. Four sets of potential risk factors representing different levels of refinement of antimicrobial use on farms were modelled on resistance to antimicrobials. Final models for each antimicrobial were constructed from treatment and management variables significant on initial screening, and corrections for overdispersion were made. In general, in-feed antimicrobial treatment of pigs was more consistently associated with an increased risk of resistance than individual-animal treatment. Antimicrobial treatment in starter rations was significant in final models of resistance to ampicillin, carbadox, nitrofurantoin, sulfisoxizole, and tetracycline. Treatment in grower-finisher rations was significantly associated with resistance to ampicillin, spectinomycin, sulfisoxizole, and tetracycline. There was little evidence that in-feed antimicrobials increased the risk of resistance to gentamicin, which is a drug used only for individual-pig treatment in this study population. These results suggest that antimicrobial medication of rations of post-weaning pigs selects for and maintains antimicrobial resistance among E. coli of finisher pigs. Although resistance was common on farms that did not medicate rations of post-weaning pigs, the results indicate that antimicrobial use does increase the risk of resistance to the antimicrobials studied.
Article: Associations between feed and water antimicrobial use in farrow-to-finish swine herds and antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli from grow-finish pigs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli (n = 1439), isolated from the feces of apparently healthy grow-finish pigs in 20 herds, were tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials. Logistic regression models were developed for each resistance that was observed in more than 5% of the isolates. Each production phase's (suckling, nursery, grow-finish pigs or sows) antimicrobial exposure rate, through feed or water, was considered as a risk factor. Management variables were evaluated as potential confounders. Six resistance outcomes were associated with an antimicrobial use risk factor and four included exposures of pigs outside the grow-finish phase. In the case of sulfamethoxazole, the odds of resistance increased 2.3 times for every 100,000 pig-days of nursery pig exposure to sulfonamides. Thus, swine producers and veterinarians must be aware that antimicrobial use in pigs distant from market could have food safety repercussions. Five resistance outcomes were associated with exposure to an unrelated antimicrobial class. Most notably, the odds of sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol resistance were each six times higher in herds reporting high (more than 500/1,000 pig-days) grow-finish pig, macrolide exposure compared to herds with no macrolide use in grow-finish pigs. Therefore, the potential for co-selection should be considered in antimicrobial use decisions. This study emphasizes the importance of judicious antimicrobial use in pork production.Microbial Drug Resistance 02/2007; 13(4):261-69. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The presence of ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli (Amp(r) E. coli) in the fecal flora of calves was monitored on a monthly basis in seven cohorts of calves. Calves were rapidly colonized by Amp(r) E. coli, with peak prevalence in cohort calves observed in the 4 months after the calves were born. The prevalence of calves yielding Amp(r) E. coli in cohorts consistently declined to low levels with increasing age of the calves (P < 0.001).Applied and Environmental Microbiology 11/2004; 70(11):6927-30. · 3.83 Impact Factor