Clinical and biological impact of antiretroviral therapy with protease inhibitors on HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the clinical and biological impact of protease inhibitors on HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
A cohort of 10 patients included prospectively from April 1996 to June 1997 were studied in one institutional centre after initiation of protease inhibitors.
All patients but one (stable disease) had progressive Kaposi's sarcoma. Three out of 10 patients had stopped specific chemotherapy for Kaposi's sarcoma for more than 4 weeks, three were still under chemotherapy, and four had never received specific treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma. Plasma HIV viral load, human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 viraemia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and CD4 cell count were sequentially assessed from the beginning of therapy. For six patients, a semiquantitative evaluation of HHV-8 viral load in the Kaposi's sarcoma lesions was performed during treatment using polymerase chain reaction.
After initiation of HIV triple therapy with protease inhibitors, we observed six complete responses, two partial responses, and two patients with progressive disease. All patients had undetectable plasma HIV viral load within 2 months of treatment. Undetectable HHV-8 viraemia in PBMC occurred in seven out of eight patients with partial or complete response and in none of the progressive patients. A decrease or negation of HHV-8 viral load in Kaposi's sarcoma lesions was observed in two complete responders.
Our results suggest that antiviral therapy with protease inhibitors are clinically efficient in HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma and that there exists a correlation between clinical response and negation of HHV-8 viraemia.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. To summarize the epidemiology of sarcomas occurring in the head and neck and identify prognostic factors for patient survival. Study Design and Setting. Cross-sectional analysis of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. Methods. The SEER 18 registries, comprising sarcoma diagnoses made from 1973 to 2010, were queried for sarcomas arising in the head and neck. Pediatric and adult patients were analyzed separately, and multivariate and propensity-matched analyses were performed to identify predictors of disease-specific survival. Results. In all, 11,481 adult cases and 1244 pediatric cases were identified. In adults, the most common histologic subtypes were malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), Kaposi sarcoma, and hemangiosarcoma, while in the pediatric cohort, the most common histologic subtypes were rhabdomyosarcoma, MFH, and osteosarcoma. Cause-specific 2-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 76%, 66%, and 61% for adults and 84%, 73%, and 71% for pediatric patients. Multivariate analysis performed for adults revealed that male gender, absence of radiation therapy, and stage I disease were associated with improved cause-specific survival reaching statistical significance. However, a propensity-matched model demonstrated no significant difference in cause-specific survival between patients who received radiation and those who did not. Conclusion. Sarcomas, a heterogeneous group of malignant mesenchymal tumors, are uncommonly found in the head and neck. This study represents the largest analysis of patients with head and neck sarcomas in the literature and demonstrates the impact of age, gender, primary site, histology, and radiation status on overall prognosis.Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 08/2014; 151(4). DOI:10.1177/0194599814545747 · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Clinically relevant drug–drug interactions (DDIs) refer to the pharmacological or clinical response to the administration or co-exposure of a drug with another drug that modifies the patient's response. Treatment regimens, which include agents that are involved in the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme system and transporter systems, such as P-glycoprotein may be associated with higher risk of clinically significant drug interactions. In addition, potential DDIs increase with the increasing number of concomitant drugs. HIV positive cancer patients who receive concomitant chemotherapy and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may achieve better response rates and higher rates of survival than those who receive chemotherapy alone, but they may be at increased risk of drug interactions. DDIs in HIV positive cancer patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy and cART may increase or decrease antineoplastic drug concentrations, potentially resulting in life threatening interactions, increased toxicity or loss of efficacy. Avoiding and managing potential interactions between cART and antineoplastic agents is an increasingly important challenge. Based on the current literature, more safety and pharmacokinetic studies are needed with the aim to document a clear survival benefit for patients undergoing chemotherapy and concomitant or sequential administration of cART.Biomedecine [?] Pharmacotherapy 06/2014; 68(5). DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2014.04.010 · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) replication increases the risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces the incidence of KS, and regimens that contain protease inhibitors (PIs) may be particularly effective. Objective To determine whether PI-based HAART regimens may more effectively inhibit HHV-8 shedding compared to regimens without PIs. Study design: Prospective, observational study of 142 HIV-1 and HHV-8 co-infected men conducted in Seattle, Washington. Quantitative HHV-8 PCR testing was performed on daily swabs of the oropharynx, the primary site of HHV-8 replication. Associations between antiretroviral regimen and detection of HHV-8 DNA in swabs were evaluated using generalized estimating equations. Results HHV-8 DNA was detected in 3,016 (26%) of 11,608 specimens collected. PI-based HAART was associated with a statistically significantly lower frequency of detection (RR 0.2; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5) compared to ART-naïve persons, whereas HAART without a PI was not (RR 0.7; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.3). Compared to ART-naïve persons, there was also a trend toward lower quantities of HHV-8 detected during treatment with HAART regimens that contained a PI. These associations between PIs and measures of HHV-8 shedding could not be attributed to use of nelfinavir, which inhibits HHV-8 replication in vitro, and were independent of CD4 count and HIV plasma viral load (VL). Conclusions HAART regimens that contain PIs appear to decrease HHV-8 shedding compared to NNRTIs. Further study of PI-based HAART is warranted to determine the optimal regimens for prevention and treatment of KS.Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 06/2014; 60(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2014.03.002 · 3.47 Impact Factor