Genetically divergent strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 use multiple coreceptors for viral entry.
ABSTRACT Several members of the seven-transmembrane chemokine receptor family have been shown to serve, with CD4, as coreceptors for entry by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). While coreceptor usage by HIV-1 primary isolates has been studied by several groups, there is only limited information available concerning coreceptor usage by primary HIV-2 isolates. In this study, we have analyzed coreceptor usage of 15 primary HIV-2 isolates, using lymphocytes from a donor with nonfunctional CCR5 (CCR5 -/-; homozygous 32-bp deletion). Based on the infections of PBMCs, seven of these primary isolates had an absolute requirement for CCR5 expression, whereas the remaining eight exhibited a broader coreceptor usage. All CCR5-requiring isolates were non-syncytium inducing, whereas isolates utilizing multiple coreceptors were syncytium inducing. Blocking experiments using known ligands for chemokine receptors provided indirect evidence for additional coreceptor utilization by primary HIV-2 isolates. Analysis of GHOST4 cell lines expressing various chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2b, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR4, BONZO, and BOB) further defined specific coreceptor usage of primary HIV-2 isolates. The receptors used included CXCR4, CCR1-5, and the recently described receptors BONZO and BOB. However, the efficiency at which the coreceptors were utilized varied greatly among the various isolates. Analysis of V3 envelope sequences revealed no specific motif that correlated with coreceptor usage. Our data demonstrate that primary HIV-2 isolates are capable of using a broad range of coreceptors for productive infection in vitro. Additionally, our data suggest that expanded coreceptor usage by HIV-2 may correlate with disease progression.
Article: Pitfalls and fallacies of cat scratch disease serology: evaluation of Bartonella henselae-based indirect fluorescence assay and enzyme-linked immunoassay.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The diagnostic value of the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM by Bartonella henselae-based indirect fluorescence assay (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) for the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD) was evaluated. The IFA was performed either with B. henselae that was cocultivated for a few hours with Vero cells or with noncocultivated B. henselae as the antigen. Additionally, the performance of a Bartonella PCR hybridization assay based on the 16S rRNA gene was determined and compared with those of the serologic assays. The study group consisted of 45 patients suspected of suffering from CSD by fulfilling one or more of the classical criteria. The specificities of the immunoassays were set at > or = 95% by analysis of sera from 60 healthy blood donors. It is shown that the sensitivities of the IgG assays are very low (40.9% for the IFA with noncocultivated B. henselae as antigen) and that those of the IgM assays are higher (71.4% for the EIA) for patients who fulfilled two or more criteria for CSD. The IgM EIA showed the highest sensitivity: 71.4% in patients with two or more criteria for CSD and 80.6% for patients with a positive Bartonella PCR result. The results indicate that the specificities of both IFA and EIA IgG serologies and the sensitivity of the IFA IgM serology need to be improved. The PCR hybridization assay showed a sensitivity of 86.4% for patients who fulfilled two or more criteria for CSD and 100% for seven patients who fulfilled three or more criteria. The kinetics of IgG and IgM antibody production were studied in 18 patients with CSD on the basis of a positive B. henselae IFA IgM serology. The results indicate that there is no standard course of anti-B. henselae IgG and IgM production in patients with CSD, because some patients produced high levels of both IgG and IgM, others produced only high levels of IgM, and a few patients produced only low levels of antibodies.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 08/1997; 35(8):1931-7. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Entry of HIV-1 into target cells requires cell-surface CD4 and additional host cell cofactors. A cofactor required for infection with virus adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines was recently identified and named fusin. However, fusin does not promote entry of macrophage-tropic viruses, which are believed to be the key pathogenic strains in vivo. The principal cofactor for entry mediated by the envelope glycoproteins of primary macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1 is CC-CKR-5, a receptor for the beta-chemokines RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta.Nature 07/1996; 381(6584):661-6. · 36.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The beta-chemokines MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES inhibit infection of CD4+ T cells by primary, non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) HIV-1 strains at the virus entry stage, and also block env-mediated cell-cell membrane fusion. CD4+ T cells from some HIV-1-exposed uninfected individuals cannot fuse with NSI HIV-1 strains and secrete high levels of beta-chemokines. Expression of the beta-chemokine receptor CC-CKR-5 in CD4+, non-permissive human and non-human cells renders them susceptible to infection by NSI strains, and allows env-mediated membrane fusion. CC-CKR-5 is a second receptor for NSI primary viruses.Nature 07/1996; 381(6584):667-73. · 36.28 Impact Factor