Long-term treatment effects of vitamin E for tardive dyskinesia
ABSTRACT Several studies have found that alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) can effectively treat tardive dyskinesia (TD). A limitation of these trials is their short treatment durations (maximum of 12 weeks), which do not allow us to address the effects of long-term treatment.
To participate, patients had to have TD and be on stable oral medications. The study enrolled 40 patients who received up to 36 weeks of treatment with d-vitamin E (1600 IU per day) or placebo.
Using the Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale (AIMS) score (sum of items #1-7) to measure TD severity, the study found a significant difference (3 points) in mean AIMS scores, in favor of vitamin E, starting at 10 weeks of treatment and continuing through the full 36 weeks. We used linear mixed-effects regression to quantify the impact of several covariates, and found that treatment assignment. TD duration, and chlorpromazine equivalents had significant effects on decreasing the AIMS score.
The study's finding that vitamin E is effective in treating TD agrees with results from prior studies and provides evidence that the effect may extend to treatment of up to 36 weeks. These findings are in direct contrast to those of VA Cooperative Study #394, a much larger, long-term, multi-site study, conducted by many of the same investigators, in which Vitamin E was not superior to placebo.
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ABSTRACT: Prevention trials have not been a central focus in mental health research in general and in the psychoses in particular. In this article we provide the basis for development of a model for prevention trials, define the parameters of the model, and provide some illustrative examples. The article expands upon traditional approaches to prevention by incorporating perspectives from the fields of treatment and services research. Approaches to prevention are based upon models of etiology, pathophysiology, and risk. A number of barriers to the development of a major emphasis on prevention are identified, and those that are embedded in the infrastructure of the field are highlighted.Schizophrenia Bulletin 02/2000; 26(3):543-9. DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a033475 · 8.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been known for a long time that vitamins are essential nutrients for humans and animals. These substances are important for regular cell function, growth and development. Relatively small amounts of vitamins are needed to perform vital functions. As a rule vitamins promote the actions of enzymes in order to improve its efficiency and in this role they are called coenzymes. There are 13 essential vitamins vitamin A, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin), pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), folate (folic acid, vitamin B9), vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K, which are needed for normal functioning of mammalians’ life. Normal neurosystem functioning depends on its structural and functional perfection. During life, the human body is exposed to many elements, which create free radicals. These free radicals are known to date as distractive agents for many biological systems include the neurosystem. Free radicals are atoms or groups of atoms with unpaired number of electrons and can be formed when oxygen interacts with certain molecules. Once these highly reactive radicals are formed, they can start a chain reaction – “domino effect”, which produces membranes damage. To prevent this damage, the body has an antioxidation defense system. Antioxidants are molecules, which can safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged. Antioxidative agents are intimately involved in the prevention of cellular damage – the common pathway for cancer, aging, and a variety of diseases. The antioxidant defense system is important in maintaining cellular homeostasis and preventing oxidative stress. According to the present invention, antioxidants like vitamins and other antioxidative agents may be considered as further active components because antioxidants inhibit free radical distractive activities. Antioxidants, especially lipid-soluble antioxidants, can be absorbed into the cell membrane to neutralize oxygen radicals and thereby protect the membrane. Although there are several enzyme systems within the body that scavenge free radicals, the principle vitamin antioxidants are vitamin E, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamins from the B group. Vitamins C, E and K are known to protect neurons from oxidative damage in stroke and in other neurodegenerative conditions. B vitamins are critically important in maintaining the normal functions of the brain. Deficiency in B vitamins results in a predictable sequence of different neurological and psychiatric disturbances. This chapter is focused on evidence from clinical and basic science studies supporting a role of several vitamins as potential neuroprotective compounds. Neuroprotective effects of them as add-on therapies merit further investigations in schizophrenia and mood disorders.