Colonization of Vibrio pelagius and Aeromonas caviae in early developing turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) larvae.
ABSTRACT Polyclonal antisera made in rabbits against whole washed cells of Vibrio pelagius and Aeromonas caviae were used for detection of these bacterial species in the rearing water and gastrointestinal tract of healthy turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae exposed to V. pelagius and/or Aer. caviae. The results demonstrated that this method is suitable for detection of V. pelagius and Aer. caviae in water samples and larvae at population levels higher than 10(3) ml-1 and 10(3) larva-1. Populations of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract of turbot larvae, estimated using the dilution plate technique, increased from approximately 4 x 10(2) bacteria larva-1 on day 3 post-hatching to approximately 10(5) bacteria fish-1 16 days post-hatching. Sixteen days after hatching, Vibrio spp. accounted for approximately 3 x 10(4) cfu larva-1 exposed to V. pelagius on days 2, 5 and 8 post-hatching. However, only 10(3) of the Vibrio spp. belonged to V. pelagius. When larvae were exposed to Aer. caviae on day 2 post-hatching, the gut microbiota of 5-day old larvae was mainly colonized by Aeromonas spp. (10(4) larva-1), of which 9 x 10(3) belonged to Aer. caviae. Later in the experiment, at the time when high mortality occurred, 9 x 10(5) Aer. caviae were detected. Introduction of V. pelagius to the rearing water seemed to improve larval survival compared with fish exposed to Aer. caviae and with the control group. It was therefore concluded that it is beneficial with regard to larval survival to introduce bacteria (V. pelagius) to the rearing water.
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ABSTRACT: Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.Journal of pathogens. 01/2013; 2013:424123.
Dataset: Probiotics in aquaculture
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ABSTRACT: Aquaculture is emerging as one of the most viable and promising enterprises for keeping pace with the surging need for animal protein, providing nutritional and food security to humans, particularly those residing in regions where livestock is relatively scarce. With every step toward intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in the stress level in the animal as well as the environment. Hence, disease outbreak is being increasingly recognized as one of the most important constraints to aquaculture production in many countries, including India. Conventionally, the disease control in aquaculture has relied on the use of chemical compounds and antibiotics. The development of non-antibiotic and environmentally friendly agents is one of the key factors for health management in aquaculture. Consequently, with the emerging need for environmentally friendly aquaculture, the use of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in fish nutrition is now widely accepted. In recent years, probiotics have taken center stage and are being used as an unconventional approach that has numerous beneficial effects in fish and shellfish culture: improved activity of gastrointestinal microbiota and enhanced immune status, disease resistance, survival, feed utilization and growth performance. As natural products, probiotics have much potential to increase the efficiency and sustainability of aquaculture production. Therefore, comprehensive research to fully characterize the intestinal microbiota of prominent fish species, mechanisms of action of probiotics and their effects on the intestinal ecosystem, immunity, fish health and performance is reasonable. This review highlights the classifications and applications of probiotics in aquaculture. The review also summarizes the advancement and research highlights of the probiotic status and mode of action, which are of great significance from an ecofriendly, sustainable, intensive aquaculture point of view.Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor