Colonization of Vibrio pelagius and Aeromonas caviae in early developing turbot (Scophtalmus maximus L.) larvae

Foundation of Applied Research, University of Tromsø, Norway.
Journal of Applied Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.48). 03/1998; 84(2):227-33. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.1998.00333.x
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Polyclonal antisera made in rabbits against whole washed cells of Vibrio pelagius and Aeromonas caviae were used for detection of these bacterial species in the rearing water and gastrointestinal tract of healthy turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae exposed to V. pelagius and/or Aer. caviae. The results demonstrated that this method is suitable for detection of V. pelagius and Aer. caviae in water samples and larvae at population levels higher than 10(3) ml-1 and 10(3) larva-1. Populations of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract of turbot larvae, estimated using the dilution plate technique, increased from approximately 4 x 10(2) bacteria larva-1 on day 3 post-hatching to approximately 10(5) bacteria fish-1 16 days post-hatching. Sixteen days after hatching, Vibrio spp. accounted for approximately 3 x 10(4) cfu larva-1 exposed to V. pelagius on days 2, 5 and 8 post-hatching. However, only 10(3) of the Vibrio spp. belonged to V. pelagius. When larvae were exposed to Aer. caviae on day 2 post-hatching, the gut microbiota of 5-day old larvae was mainly colonized by Aeromonas spp. (10(4) larva-1), of which 9 x 10(3) belonged to Aer. caviae. Later in the experiment, at the time when high mortality occurred, 9 x 10(5) Aer. caviae were detected. Introduction of V. pelagius to the rearing water seemed to improve larval survival compared with fish exposed to Aer. caviae and with the control group. It was therefore concluded that it is beneficial with regard to larval survival to introduce bacteria (V. pelagius) to the rearing water.

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Available from: Olav Vadstein, Oct 26, 2014
    • "Proposed probiotics for use in aquaculture belong to lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus and Carnobacterium), the genus Vibrio (V. alginolyticus, V. pelagius), the genus Bacillus, or the genus Pseudomonas, although other genera or species have also been mentioned (Aeromonas and Flavobacterium), yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. exiguous , Phaffia rhodozoma), and microalgae (Tetraselmis suecica ) (Ringø & Vadstein 1998; Gatesoupe 1999, 2007; Irianto & Austin 2002; Balc azar et al. 2006). Microorganisms authorized as probiotics in feeding stuffs under Council Directive 70/524/EEC are: Bacillus cereus var. "
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    • "There is no mention of Lactobacillus being even isolated from gut, gills or from the external surface of another widely consumed fish-grey mullets (Mugil cephalus) in the study of Nagvenkar et al. (2006) even though it does mention the absence of Azotobacter from the gut of M. cephalus. Ringo and Vadstein (1998) had reported that, LAB even though are present in the gut of human (as Bifidobacterium) and swine and birds (as Lactobacillus) and as Enterococcus in carnivores -are generally subdominant in the gut of the fishes and if at all, are mostly represented by the genus Carnobacterium (Gildberg and Mikkelsen, 1998). Isolate 246 showed good antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogens, while isolates 229, 232 and 234 displayed commendable activity against the shrimp pathogens (Table 2). "
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    • "Kozasa (1986) reported that the spores of Bacillus toyoi increased the growth rate of yellowtail and reduced the mortality of Japanese eel that were infected by Edwardsiella sp. The Gramnegative Vibrio pelagius decreased the mortality of the turbot larvae Scophthalmus maximus challenged with Aeromonas caviae (Ringo and Vadstein, 1998). Gatesoupe (1991b) showed that Bacillus toyoi and Bacillus sp spores increased the growth rate of larval turbot introduced via the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. "

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