The benign occipital epilepsies of childhood: an overview of the idiopathic syndromes and of the relationship to migraine.
ABSTRACT Benign occipital epilepsy of childhood is an idiopathic partial epilepsy syndrome with elementary visual symptomatology, frequently associated with other ictal phenomena. Seizures are usually followed by postictal headache and are often associated with interictal occipital rhythmic paroxysmal EEG activity that appears only after eye closure. In some children the ictal visual symptoms or the interictal EEG abnormalities may not be demonstrated. The clinical and/or EEG manifestations of other forms of idiopathic partial or generalized epilepsy may be found in association. Occipital spikes in non-epileptic children with defective vision, occipital slow spike-and-wave found in some patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, focal epilepsy due to occipital lesions, seizures originating in the temporal lobe secondary to an occipital abnormality, and complicated or basilar migraine must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Early-onset benign occipital epilepsy or seizure susceptibility syndrome deserves to be considered separately. It has been defined by Panayiotopoulos as consisting of brief, infrequent attacks or prolonged status epilepticus and characterized by ictal deviation of the eyes and/or head and vomiting, occurring in children usually between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Advances in molecular genetics will help decide whether these two disorders are indeed distinct. Benign occipital and benign rolandic epilepsy are commonly associated with migraine. The selective involvement of the occipital lobe in migraine has not been fully explained. The association between benign occipital epilepsy and migraine is likely related to this underlying mechanism as well. The "fixation off" phenomenon or blocking of occipital epileptic discharges by eye opening is not specific to benign occipital epilepsy of childhood and may be found in symptomatic epilepsies as well. Migraine and epilepsy are distinct disorders, both as far as their pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical symptomatology are concerned. There is however an overlap in some patients and a causal relationship may exist in some, leading to clinically distinct migraine epilepsy syndromes. Here too, clarification of the molecular basis of migraine and of epilepsy will throw light on the nature of the relationship between the two conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the incidence of postictal headache (PIH) and the factors potentially related to the occurrence of PIH in a Chinese epileptic center. Methods Consecutive adult patients with epilepsy, referred to the outpatient clinic of the Epilepsy Center of PLA General Hospital between February 01, 2012, and May 10, 2013, were recruited to this study. 854 patients with partial epilepsy completed a questionnaire regarding headache, 466 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), 82 patients with OLE (occipital lobe epilepsy), and 306 patients with FLE (temporal lobe epilepsy), a semi-structured interview was performed in those who confirmed headache. Results PIH occurred in 328 (38.41%) of the subjects. By type of epilepsy, PIH was found in 164 (35.19%) of the patients with TLE, 46 (56.01%) of the patients with OLE, and 118 (38.56%) of the patients with FLE. The incidence of PIH in OLE was significantly higher than in TLE and FLE (P < 0.05). It occurs more frequently after generalized tonic-clonic seizures than other seizure types. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age at onset, type of seizure and classification of epilepsy were each significantly related to the occurrence of PIH. Conclusion The results of our study revealed possible relationships between PIH and the region of epileptic focus and area of spread of epileptic discharges.Seizure 01/2013; · 2.00 Impact Factor