Antiretroviral drug resistance testing in adults with HIV infection: implications for clinical management. International AIDS Society--USA Panel.
ABSTRACT To review current knowledge of the biology and clinical implications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) resistance to antiretroviral drugs, describe assays for measuring resistance, and assess their use in clinical practice.
The International AIDS Society-USA assembled a panel of 13 physicians with expertise in basic science, clinical research, and patient care relevant to HIV resistance to antiretroviral drugs.
We reviewed available data from published reports and presented at national and international research conferences. Basic science research, clinical trial results, and expert opinions were used to form the basis of this report. Data on methods for and characteristics of specific genotypic and phenotypic assays were obtained from manufacturers and service providers.
The panel met regularly between October 1997 and April 1998. Panel subgroups developed and discussed different sections of the report before discussing them with the entire panel. Conclusions and suggested approaches to the use of resistance testing were determined by group consensus.
Plasma HIV RNA level and CD4+ cell count are the primary values that should be used to guide the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and subsequent changes in therapy. Possible causes of treatment failure other than development of drug resistance that should be considered are adherence, drug potency, and pharmacokinetic issues. Genotypic and phenotypic testing for HIV resistance to antiretroviral drugs may prove useful for individual patient management. Assays under development need validation, standardization, and a clearer definition of their clinical roles. Possible current roles of resistance testing for choosing an initial regimen or changing antiretroviral therapy, as well as possible implications of the presence or absence of phenotypic resistance and genotypic changes, are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Little is known about HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in eastern China where the HIV epidemic is spreading predominantly through sexual contact. During 2008-2011, newly HIV-diagnosed adults in Taizhou prefecture, Zhejiang province in eastern China were examined for HIVDR by amplifying and sequencing the HIV-1 pol gene. Of 447 genotyped participants, 53·7% were infected with CRF01_AE, 20·1% with CRF07_BC, 12·5% with subtype B, and 11·6% with CRF08_BC. Most of the participants had one or more minor genetic mutations in the pol gene that are associated with HIVDR. Twelve (2·7%) participants met the standard guidelines of having low to high HIVDR, suggesting that the prevalence of HIVDR in newly HIV-diagnosed adults was low in the study area and current antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are likely to remain effective. However, given high frequency of minor HIVDR in HIV patients and the scaling up of ART programmes in China, larger HIVDR surveillance programmes are needed.Epidemiology and Infection 05/2014; DOI:10.1017/S0950268814001174 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A national ART program was launched in Tanzania in October 2004. Due to the existence of multiple HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant viruses co-circulating in Tanzania, it is important to monitor rates of drug resistance. The present study determined the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among ART-naive female bar and hotel workers, a high-risk population for HIV-1 infection in Moshi, Tanzania. A partial HIV-1 pol gene was analyzed by single-genome amplification and sequencing in 45 subjects (622 pol sequences total; median number of sequences per subject, 13; IQR 5-20) in samples collected in 2005. The prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes A1, C, and D, and inter-subtype recombinant viruses, was 36%, 29%, 9% and 27%, respectively. Thirteen different recombination patterns included D/A1/D, C/A1, A1/C/A1, A1/U/A1, C/U/A1, C/A1, U/D/U, D/A1/D, A1/C, A1/C, A2/C/A2, CRF10_CD/C/CRF10_CD and CRF35_AD/A1/CRF35_AD. CRF35_AD was identified in Tanzania for the first time. All recombinant viruses in this study were unique, suggesting ongoing recombination processes among circulating HIV-1 variants. The prevalence of multiple infections in this population was 16% (n = 7). Primary HIV-1 drug resistance mutations to RT inhibitors were identified in three (7%) subjects (K65R plus Y181C; N60D; and V106M). In some subjects, polymorphisms were observed at the RT positions 41, 69, 75, 98, 101, 179, 190, and 215. Secondary mutations associated with NNRTIs were observed at the RT positions 90 (7%) and 138 (6%). In the protease gene, three subjects (7%) had M46I/L mutations. All subjects in this study had HIV-1 subtype-specific natural polymorphisms at positions 36, 69, 89 and 93 that are associated with drug resistance in HIV-1 subtype B. These results suggested that HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and natural polymorphisms existed in this population before the initiation of the national ART program. With increasing use of ARV, these results highlight the importance of drug resistance monitoring in Tanzania.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102258. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102258 · 3.53 Impact Factor