A measure of anxiety symptoms among children

Department of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Behaviour Research and Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.85). 06/1998; 36(5):545-66. DOI: 10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00034-5
Source: PubMed


The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) is a child self-report measure designed to evaluate symptoms relating to separation anxiety, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic-agoraphobia, generalized anxiety and fears of physical injury. The results of confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses supported six factors consistent with the hypothesized diagnostic categories. There was support also for a model in which the 1st-order factors loaded significantly on a single 2nd-order factor of anxiety in general. The internal consistency of the total score and subscales was high and 6 month test-retest reliability was acceptable. The SCAS correlated strongly with a frequently used child self-report measure of anxiety. Comparisons between clinically anxious and control children showed significant differences in total SCAS scores, with subscale scores reflecting the type of presenting anxiety disorder of the clinical samples.

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    • "Parents reported that some items were not suitable for children in this range of cognitive functioning, as the items referred to children who were verbal and/or had a higher level of ability compared with the child they were asked to respond about. Children with an IQ N69 and who were 7 years of age or older completed the self-report version of the SCAS (n = 48) [25] and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) (n = 48) [26]. A psychologist was present with the children when they completed the instruments to provide clarification if needed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Methods: Children (5-15years) with active epilepsy were screened using the parent-report (n=69) and self-report (n=48) versions of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the self-report version of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) (n=48) in a population-based sample. Results: A total of 32.2% of children (self-report) and 15.2% of children (parent-report) scored ≥1 SD above the mean on the SCAS total score. The subscales where most difficulty were reported on parent-report were Physical Injury and Separation Anxiety. There was less variation on self-report. On the CDI, 20.9% of young people scored ≥1 SD above the mean. Children reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety on the SCAS total score and three of the subscales (p<.05). There was a significant effect on the SCAS total score of respondents by seizure type interaction, suggesting higher scores on SCAS for children with generalized seizures on self- but not parent-report. Higher CDI scores were significantly associated with generalized seizures (p>.05). Summary: Symptoms of anxiety were more common based on self-report compared with parent-report. Children with generalized seizures reported more symptoms of depression and anxiety.
    Epilepsy & Behavior 11/2015; 52(Pt A):174-179. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.09.004 · 2.26 Impact Factor
    • "In a multiple mediator model, changes in CQ-C and CQ-P scores mediated treatment outcome. Further testing of specific contributions revealed that the CQ-C mediated outcome as measured by the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS; Spence, 1998) and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent (PSCAS; Spence, 1998) although the CQ-P did not. Among the studies that tested for mediation, temporal precedence of the mediator was typically not established, limiting the ability to draw firm conclusions and make causal inferences (MacKinnon et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Test changes in (a) coping efficacy and (b) anxious self-talk as potential mediators of treatment gains at 3-month follow-up in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Treatment Study (CAMS). Method: Participants were 488 youth (ages 7-17; 50.4% male) randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; Coping cat program), pharmacotherapy (sertraline), their combination, or pill placebo. Participants met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Coping efficacy (reported ability to manage anxiety provoking situations) was measured by youth and parent reports on the Coping Questionnaire, and anxious self-talk was measured by youth report on the Negative Affectivity Self-Statement Questionnaire. Outcome was measured using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (completed by Independent Evaluators blind to condition). For temporal precedence, residualized treatment gains were assessed at 3-month follow-up. Results: Residualized gains in coping efficacy mediated gains in the CBT, sertraline, and combination conditions. In the combination condition, some unique effect of treatment remained. Treatment assignment was not associated with a reduction in anxious self-talk, nor did anxious self-talk predict changes in anxiety symptoms. Conclusions: The findings suggest that improvements in coping efficacy are a mediator of treatment gains. Anxious self-talk did not emerge as a mediator. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 10/2015; DOI:10.1037/a0039773 · 4.85 Impact Factor
    • "The measure is able to distinguish clinically anxious from non-anxious children (Nauta et al., 2004) and has adequate convergent and discriminant validity (Spence, 1998). In this study, internal consistencies were also strong (child report α = .93; "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to examine the effects of training in positive interpretations in clinically anxious children. A total of 87 children between 7 and 12 years of age were randomly assigned to either a positive cognitive bias modification training for interpretation (CMB-I) or a neutral training. Training included 15 sessions in a two-week period. Children with an interpretation bias prior to training in the positive training group showed a significant reduction in interpretation bias on the social threat scenarios after training, but not children in the neutral training group. No effects on interpretation biases were found for the general threat scenarios or the non-threat scenarios. Furthermore, children in the positive training did not self-report lower anxiety than children in the neutral training group. However, mothers and fathers reported a significant reduction in social anxiety in their children after positive training, but not after neutral training. This study demonstrated that clinically anxious children with a prior interpretation bias can be trained away from negative social interpretation biases and there is some evidence that this corresponds to reductions in social anxiety. This study also highlights the importance of using specific training stimuli.
    Behaviour Research and Therapy 10/2015; 75. DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2015.10.006 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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