CIPP, a Novel Multivalent PDZ Domain Protein, Selectively Interacts with Kir4.0 Family Members, NMDA Receptor Subunits, Neurexins, and Neuroligins
ABSTRACT We report a novel multivalent PDZ domain protein, CIPP (for channel-interacting PDZ domain protein), which is expressed exclusively in brain and kidney. Within the brain, the highest CIPP mRNA levels were found in neurons of the cerebellum, inferior colliculus, vestibular nucleus, facial nucleus, and thalamus. Furthermore, we identified the inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channel, Kir4.1 (also called "Kir1.2"), as a cellular CIPP ligand. Among several other Kir channels tested, only the closely related Kir4.2 (or "Kir1.3") also interacted with CIPP. In addition, specific PDZ domains within CIPP associated selectively with the C-termini of N-methyl-D-aspartate subtypes of glutamate receptors, as well as neurexins and neuroligins, cell surface molecules enriched in synaptic membranes. Thus, CIPP may serve as a scaffold that brings structurally diverse but functionally connected proteins into close proximity at the synapse. The functional consequences of CIPP expression on Kir4.1 channels were studied using whole-cell voltage clamp techniques in Kir4.1 transfected COS-7 cells. On average, Kir4.1 current densities were doubled by cotransfection with CIPP.
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ABSTRACT: Synaptic damage is a critical hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, and the best correlate with cognitive impairment ante mortem. Synapses, the loci of communication between neurons, are characterized by signature protein combinations arrayed at tightly apposed pre- and post-synaptic sites. The most widely studied trans-synaptic junctional complexes, which direct synaptogenesis and foster the maintenance and stability of the mature terminal, are conjunctions of presynaptic neurexins and postsynaptic neuroligins. Fluctuations in the levels of neuroligins and neurexins can sway the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain, and could lead to damage of synapses and dendrites. This review summarizes current understanding of the roles of neurexins and neuroligins proteolytic processing in synaptic plasticity in the human brain, and outlines their possible roles in β-amyloid metabolism and function, which are central pathogenic events in Alzheimer's disease progression.Neurobiology of aging 11/2013; 35(4). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.09.032 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping studies from our laboratory identified a 6.6 Mb segment of distal chromosome 1 that contains a gene (or genes) having a strong influence on the difference in seizure susceptibility between C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) mice. A gene transfer strategy involving a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) DNA construct that contains several candidate genes from the critical interval was used to test the hypothesis that a strain-specific variation in one (or more) of the genes is responsible for the QTL effect. Fertilized oocytes from a seizure-sensitive congenic strain (B6.D2-Mtv7a/Ty-27d) were injected with BAC DNA and three independent founder lines of BAC-transgenic mice were generated. Seizure susceptibility was quantified by measuring maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) in transgenic mice and nontransgenic littermates. Seizure testing documented significant MEST elevation in all three transgenic lines compared to littermate controls. Allele-specific RT-PCR analysis confirmed gene transcription from genome-integrated BAC DNA and copy-number-dependent phenotypic effects were observed. Results of this study suggest that the gene(s) responsible for the major chromosome 1 seizure QTL is found on BAC RPCI23-157J4 and demonstrate the utility of in vivo gene transfer for studying quantitative trait genes in mice. Further characterization of this transgenic model will provide new insight into mechanisms of seizure susceptibility.Epilepsia 10/2007; 48(9):1667-77. DOI:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2007.01126.x · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The tricellular junction (TCJ) forms at the convergence of pleated septate junctions (SJs) from three adjacent cells in polarized epithelia and is necessary for maintaining the transepithelial barrier. In Drosophila, the transmembrane protein Gliotactin was the first identified marker of the TCJ, but little is known about other molecular constituents. We now show that Gliotactin associates with Discs large at the TCJ in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Discs large is essential for the formation of the TCJ and the localization of Gliotactin. Surprisingly, Gliotactin localization at the TCJ was independent of its PDZ-binding motif and Gliotactin did not bind directly to Discs large. Therefore Gliotactin and Discs large association is through intermediary proteins at the TCJ. Gliotactin can associate with other septate junction proteins but this was detected only when Gliotactin was overexpressed and spread throughout the septate junction domain. Gliotactin overexpression and spread also resulted in a reduction of Discs large staining but not vice versa. These results suggest that Discs large participates in different protein interactions in the SJ and the TCJ. Finally this work supports a model where Gliotactin and Dlg are components of a larger protein complex that links the converging SJs with the TCJ to create the transepithelial barrier.Journal of Cell Science 12/2006; 119(Pt 21):4391-401. DOI:10.1242/jcs.03208 · 5.33 Impact Factor