Detection of Epstein-Barr virus and HTLV-I in T-cell lymphomas of skin in Taiwan.
ABSTRACT Viral etiology has been associated with the pathogenesis of T-cell lymphomas of skin (TCLS). Therefore, we studied the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and type I human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I) in tumor cells of TCLS to determine the significance of these viruses with the disease. A retrospective study was conducted on the skin tissues from 28 Chinese patients with TCLS. We used in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of viruses. Among the 28 cases, HTLV-I was only detected in two cases with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, not in other cases of TCLS. This suggests that HTLV-I may not play a significant role in the oncogenesis of TCLS in Chinese patients. Conversely, EBV was detected in 12 cases (42.9%), including the secondary TCLS, large cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and angiocentric lymphoma. Nevertheless, latent membrane protein 1 was not detected in any of the EBV-positive cases. Neither was any correlation found between the presence of EBV in TCLS and the prognosis or the severity of the skin lesion. Although there is a close association of EBV with a portion of TCLS, its pathogenic role needs further investigation.
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ABSTRACT: Human natural killer (NK) cells express Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) transcript and, upon exposure to microbial CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), release cytokines and kill target cells. Here we show that NK cell treatment with CpG ODN results in down-modulation of KIR3DL2 inhibitory receptor from the cell surface and in its cointernalization with CpG ODN. CpG ODN-induced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release is mostly confined to KIR3DL2(+) NK cells, thus suggesting a crucial role of KIR3DL2 in CpG ODN-mediated NK responses. Using soluble receptor molecules, we demonstrate the direct binding of KIR3DL2 to ODNs and we show that the D0 domain is involved primarily in this interaction. KIR3DL2 modulation is also induced in malignant cells of Sézary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, a disease in which KIR3DL2 represents a typical marker of malignant T cells. Confocal microscopy analysis suggests that, in human NK cells, CpG ODN can encounter TLR9 in early endosomes after being shuttled to these sites by KIR3DL2, which functions as a CpG ODN receptor at the cell surface. This novel KIR-associated function emphasizes the antimicrobial role of NK cells in the course of infection.Blood 02/2010; 116(10):1637-47. DOI:10.1182/blood-2009-12-256586 · 9.78 Impact Factor
Journal of Medical Microbiology 05/2004; 53(5):381-387. DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.05439-0 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) are human natural killer (NK) receptors that recognize allotypic determinants of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Inhibitory KIRs discriminate normal cells from tumour or virus-infected cells that have lost or reduced HLA class I expression. Donor NK cell "alloeffector" responses are exploited in haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation to treat leukaemia. NK cells also express several toll-like receptors (TLRs) that increase NK cell cytotoxicity and cytokine release in response to ligands. Surprisingly, KIR3DL2 binds the TLR ligand CpG-oligodexynucleotides, and together, they are co-internalized and translocated to TLR9-rich early endosomes. This novel KIR-associated function offers clues to understanding the NK cell response to microbial infection, and extends the role played by KIRs in immune defence.Trends in Immunology 08/2010; 31(8):289-94. DOI:10.1016/j.it.2010.05.007 · 12.03 Impact Factor