Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of D-limonene in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Research Campaign Phase I/II Clinical Trials Committee.
ABSTRACT D-Limonene is a natural monoterpene with pronounced chemotherapeutic activity and minimal toxicity in preclinical studies. A phase I clinical trial to assess toxicity, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics in patients with advanced cancer was followed by a limited phase II evaluation in breast cancer.
A group of 32 patients with refractory solid tumors completed 99 courses of D-limonene 0.5 to 12 g/m2 per day administered orally in 21-day cycles. Pharmacokinetics were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ten additional breast cancer patients received 15 cycles of D-limonene at 8 g/m2 per day. Intratumoral monoterpene levels were measured in two patients.
The MTD was 8 g/m2 per day; nausea, vomiting and diarrhea were dose limiting. One partial response in a breast cancer patient on 8 g/m2 per day was maintained for 11 months; three patients with colorectal carcinoma had prolonged stable disease. There were no responses in the phase II study. Peak plasma concentration (Cmax) for D-limonene ranged from 10.8+/-6.7 to 20.5+/-11.2 microM. Predominant circulating metabolites were perillic acid (Cmax 20.7+/-13.2 to 71+/-29.3 microM), dihydroperillic acid (Cmax 16.6+/-7.9 to 28.1+/-3.1 microM), limonene-1,2-diol (Cmax 10.1+/-8 to 20.7+/-8.6 microM), uroterpenol (Cmax 14.3+/-1.5 to 45.1+/-1.8 microM), and an isomer of perillic acid. Both isomers of perillic acid, and cis and trans isomers of dihydroperillic acid were in urine hydrolysates. Intratumoral levels of D-limonene and uroterpenol exceeded the corresponding plasma levels. Other metabolites were trace constituents in tissue.
D-Limonene is well tolerated in cancer patients at doses which may have clinical activity. The favorable toxicity profile supports further clinical evaluation.
- SourceAvailable from: Rita OstanSenescence, 02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0144-4
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ABSTRACT: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been the primary focus of cannabis research since 1964, when Raphael Mechoulam isolated and synthesized it. More recently, the synergistic contributions of cannabidiol to cannabis pharmacology and analgesia have been scientifically demonstrated. Other phytocannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol and cannabichromene, exert additional effects of therapeutic interest. Innovative conventional plant breeding has yielded cannabis chemotypes expressing high titres of each component for future study. This review will explore another echelon of phytotherapeutic agents, the cannabis terpenoids: limonene, myrcene, α-pinene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, nerolidol and phytol. Terpenoids share a precursor with phytocannabinoids, and are all flavour and fragrance components common to human diets that have been designated Generally Recognized as Safe by the US Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory agencies. Terpenoids are quite potent, and affect animal and even human behaviour when inhaled from ambient air at serum levels in the single digits ng·mL(-1) . They display unique therapeutic effects that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts. Particular focus will be placed on phytocannabinoid-terpenoid interactions that could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). Scientific evidence is presented for non-cannabinoid plant components as putative antidotes to intoxicating effects of THC that could increase its therapeutic index. Methods for investigating entourage effects in future experiments will be proposed. Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid synergy, if proven, increases the likelihood that an extensive pipeline of new therapeutic products is possible from this venerable plant. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7.British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2011; 163(7):1344-64. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x · 4.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Limonene is a monoterpene that has antitumoral, antibiotic and antiprotozoal activity. In this study we demonstrate the activity of limonene against Leishmania species in vitro and in vivo. Limonene killed Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 252.0+/-49.0 and 147.0+/-46.0 microM, respectively. Limonene was also effective against Leishmania major, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania chagasi promastigotes. The treatment of L. amazonensis-infected macrophages with 300 microM limonene resulted in 78% reduction in infection rates. L. amazonensis-infected mice treated topically or intrarectally with limonene had significant reduction of lesion sizes. A significant decrease in the parasite load was shown in the lesions treated topically with limonene by histopathological examination. The intrarectal treatment was highly effective in decreasing the parasite burden, healing established lesions and suppressing the dissemination of ulcers. Limonene presents low toxicity in humans and has been shown to be effective as an agent for enhancing the percutaneous permeation of drugs. Our results suggest that limonene should be tested in different experimental models of infection by Leishmania.Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie 04/2009; 63(9):643-9. DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2009.02.004 · 2.11 Impact Factor