Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of D-limonene in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Research Campaign Phase I/II Clinical Trials Committee.
ABSTRACT D-Limonene is a natural monoterpene with pronounced chemotherapeutic activity and minimal toxicity in preclinical studies. A phase I clinical trial to assess toxicity, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics in patients with advanced cancer was followed by a limited phase II evaluation in breast cancer.
A group of 32 patients with refractory solid tumors completed 99 courses of D-limonene 0.5 to 12 g/m2 per day administered orally in 21-day cycles. Pharmacokinetics were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ten additional breast cancer patients received 15 cycles of D-limonene at 8 g/m2 per day. Intratumoral monoterpene levels were measured in two patients.
The MTD was 8 g/m2 per day; nausea, vomiting and diarrhea were dose limiting. One partial response in a breast cancer patient on 8 g/m2 per day was maintained for 11 months; three patients with colorectal carcinoma had prolonged stable disease. There were no responses in the phase II study. Peak plasma concentration (Cmax) for D-limonene ranged from 10.8+/-6.7 to 20.5+/-11.2 microM. Predominant circulating metabolites were perillic acid (Cmax 20.7+/-13.2 to 71+/-29.3 microM), dihydroperillic acid (Cmax 16.6+/-7.9 to 28.1+/-3.1 microM), limonene-1,2-diol (Cmax 10.1+/-8 to 20.7+/-8.6 microM), uroterpenol (Cmax 14.3+/-1.5 to 45.1+/-1.8 microM), and an isomer of perillic acid. Both isomers of perillic acid, and cis and trans isomers of dihydroperillic acid were in urine hydrolysates. Intratumoral levels of D-limonene and uroterpenol exceeded the corresponding plasma levels. Other metabolites were trace constituents in tissue.
D-Limonene is well tolerated in cancer patients at doses which may have clinical activity. The favorable toxicity profile supports further clinical evaluation.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective The essential oil from the leaves of Ocimum kilimandscharicum (EOOK), collected in Dourados-MS, was investigated for anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity and chemical composition. Materials and methods The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, and the chemical composition was performed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The essential oil was evaluated for free radical-scavenging activity using the DPPH assay and was tested in an anticancer assay against ten human cancer cell lines. The response parameter (GI50) was calculated for the cell lines tested. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice. Results The chemical composition showed 45 components with a predominance of monoterpenes, such as camphor (51.81%), 1,8 cineole (20.13%) and limonene (11.23%). The EOOK exhibited potent free radical-scavenging activity by the DPPH assay with a GI50 of 8.31 μg/ml. The major constituents, pure camphor (IC50 = 12.56 μg/ml) and mixture of the limonene: 1, 8 cineole (IC50 = 23.25 μg/ml) displayed a potent activity. The oral administration of EOOK (at 30 and 100 mg kg−1), as well as the pure camphor or a mixture of 1,8 cineole with limonene, significantly inhibited the carrageenan (Cg) induced pleurisy, reducing the migration of total leukocytes in mice by 82 ± 4% (30 mg kg−1 of EOOK), 95 ± 4% (100 mg kg−1 of EOOK), 83 ± 9% (camphor) and 80 ± 5% (mixture of 1,8 cineole:limonene 1:1). In vitro cytotoxicity screening against a human ovarian cancer cell line displayed high selectivity and potent anticancer activity with GI50 = 31.90 mg ml−1. This work describes the anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antioxidant effects of EOOK for the first time. Conclusions The essential oil exhibited marked anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer effects, an effect that can be attributed the presence of majorital compounds, and the response profiles from chemical composition differed from other oils collected in different locales.Phytomedicine 09/2014; 21(11):1298–1302. DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2014.07.004 · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Lippia origanoides H.B.K. (Verbenaceae) is an aromatic plant commonly called as "oregano". Eight essential oils of L. origanoides and some of their main components were evaluated in vitro on tumor cell line HeLa and non-tumor cell line Vero to identify tumoural cytotoxic potential. Materials and methods: Inhibition 50% of cell population (IC50) was determined using the photo-colorimeter technique MTT (3 - (4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide). IC50 values were obtained by linear regression analysis. The selectivity index (SI), defined as Vero IC50 on HeLa IC50, it was calculated in order to find oil or major components with selective tumor cytotoxic potential. Results and conclusions: the chemical composition of the oil most cytotoxic was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry GC/MS. The L. origanoides oil identified as chemotype trans-β-caryophyllene/p-cymene showed the highest cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells with IC50 value of 9.1 ± 1 μg/mL and selectivity index of 7.1. The main components were: trans-β-caryophyllene (11.3 ρ-cymene (11.2%), α-phellandrene (9.9%), limonene (7.2%), 1.8-cineol (6.5%) and α-humulene (6.0%). The most of the major components did not show cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells, only limonene and β-myrcene showed IS values of 6.97 and 3.01, respectively. However, the IC50 values were higher than active oil. These results suggest that cytotoxic activities of the oils are not only due to their main components, but to a synergism among its components. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 215-222.Salud UIS 12/2009; 41(3):215-222.