Earlier research (Corrigan and Green, Am. J. Psychiatry, 150 (1993) 589-594) showed fairly symptomatic persons with schizophrenia give more false-positive responses when answering questions about abstract cues in a social situation (i.e. affect, rules, and goals inferred about an interpersonal situation) than concrete cues (i.e. actions and dialogue observed in a situation). It is unclear, however, whether differential cue recognition is due to schizophrenia per se, or some aspect of the illness commensurate with significant symptoms and in-patient care. Moreover, the abstract and concrete dimension in the earlier study had not been independently validated. In this study, the 288 items of the Social Cue Recognition Test (SCRT) were divided into three sets based on abstraction ratings provided by 38 college students. The SCRT was then completed by 48 participants with DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants with schizophrenia were divided into low and high symptom groups using scores from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Results showed both low symptom and high symptom groups exhibited a differential deficit in cue recognition. False positives were greater for items rated as more abstract. Implications for understanding the social cognitive deficits of persons with schizophrenia are discussed.
"Failure of inhibitory control, e.g., using the prepulse inhibition paradigm, has been proposed as one of the key endophenotypes of schizophrenia (SZ) (Cadenhead et al., 2002). Individuals with SZ have difficulty overcoming prepotent response tendencies (Ford et al., 2004), and some inhibitory paradigms using explicit predictive cues have demonstrated longer reaction times (RTs) and more errors in SZ subjects than in healthy comparison subjects (HC) (Fallgatter et al., 2003; Fallgatter and Muller, 2001; Fallgatter, 2001; Javitt et al., 2000).Other studies have found that SZ subjects present impaired cue recognition in a social context (Corrigan and Nelson, 1998; Ito et al., 1998; Hall et al., 2004), particularly in those with positive symptoms (Hall et al., 2004; Crider, 1997). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of this investigation was to assess the neural correlates of implicit cueing during an inhibitory task in schizophrenia when performance accuracy was matched with healthy comparison subjects.
We compared 17 individuals with chronic schizophrenia (SZ; medicated, 13.9 average years of illness) and 17 healthy comparison subjects (HC) matched for hit and false alarm rates, age, and education on a visual Go/Nogo task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, one of the go stimuli also served implicitly as a cue predictive of a subsequent inhibitory (Nogo) trial.
Findings suggest that even when matched for overall performance accuracy, individuals with SZ exhibit difficulties with inhibition and cue processing that may relate to core deficits in cognitive control and stimulus processing. In particular, these findings point towards an important role of the parietal cortex for cued inhibitory processes in healthy populations.
"One factor that leads to this deficit is miscommunication with others. For example, patients may misidentify social information (rules, affect and goals in social situations) especially when asked abstract, rather than concrete, questions about social situations (Corrigan & Green, 1993; Corrigan & Nelson, 1998). Some current models of schizophrenia postulate that it can be best understood as a disorder of the representation of mental states (i.e. the inability to represent what others are thinking) (Frith, 1992 ; Broks, 1997). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A better understanding of the neural basis of social cognition including mindreading (or theory of mind) and empathy might help to explain some deficits in social functioning in people with schizophrenia. Our aim was to review neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies on social cognition, as they may shed light on the neural mechanisms of social cognition and its dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.
A selective literature review was undertaken.
Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies suggest convergence upon specific networks for mindreading and empathy (the temporal cortex, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex). The frontal lobe is likely to play a central role in enabling social cognition, but mindreading and empathic abilities may require relatively different weighting of subcomponents within the same frontal-temporal social cognition network.
Disturbances in social cognition may represent an abnormal interaction between frontal lobe and its functionally connected cortical and subcortical areas. Future studies should seek to explore the heterogeneity of social dysfunction within schizophrenia.
Psychological Medicine 05/2004; 34(3):391-400. DOI:10.1017/S0033291703001284 · 5.94 Impact Factor
"Some recent evidence also suggests that the language deficits of schizophrenic patients can be attributed to the social perceptual deficits in which those patients were impaired in understanding abstract concepts and emotional aspects of partic- Ž ular situations Penn et al., 1997; Corrigan and . Nelson, 1998 . In addition, another hypothesis suggests that the language impairment observed in patients with schizophrenia may be attributed to a breakdown of semantic memory. Ž ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Event schemas, the conceptualization of past experience, in schizophrenic patients were examined based upon script theory. Forty schizophrenic patients and 40 age- and education-matched normal control subjects participated in this study. This experiment consisted of three tasks. In the recall task, subjects recalled a typical scenario of going to a formal restaurant. In the frequency judgment task, subjects determined whether the given events happen frequently, occasionally or rarely in a restaurant. In the sequencing task, the subjects put the randomly presented events in the correct order. The responses of the schizophrenic patients in the recall task, when compared with those of the normal control subjects, had significantly fewer concepts and a greater proportion of highest-frequency concepts. In addition, the sequence of their responses was less accurate than that of normal individuals. This abnormality is unlikely due primarily to a retrieval deficit (i.e. generating fewer concepts in the recall task) given that their performances on the frequency judgment and sequencing tasks, tasks that require less retrieval effort, were consistent with those of the recall task. These results suggest that event schemas in schizophrenic patients contain little detailed information and are incoherent in organization.
Psychiatry Research 11/1999; 87(2-3):169-81. DOI:10.1016/S0165-1781(99)00051-7 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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