Fulminant hepatitis complicated by small intestine infection and massive hemorrhage.
ABSTRACT A 34-year-old man diagnosed with fulminant hepatitis, caused by hepatitis B virus, and acute renal failure was referred to our hospital. After admission to the intensive care unit, the liver and renal failure were ameliorated. Melena requiring transfusion occurred during the course of his illness. Endoscopic examination demonstrated pseudomembranes, erosions, ulcers, and hemorrhage in the duodenum, the upper jejunum, and the terminal ileum, suggesting widespread lesions throughout the small intestine. Pseudomonas putida, Xanthomonas maltophilia, and Candida glabrata were cultured from ileal fluid. Candida glabrata was also detected in sputum, feces, and on an intravenous catheter tip. The patient was treated with amphotericin B and miconazole. The melena was ameliorated, but inflammation of the small intestine persisted. Although we had difficulty in treating the enteritis, the patient survived, and 1 year later colonoscopic examination demonstrated no abnormalities. The small intestine is a difficult site to examine, but endoscopic examination of this site is important when massive hemorrhage develops.
- SourceAvailable from: Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The microbes that inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract comprise a complex ecosystem with functions that significantly contribute to our systemic metabolism and have an impact on health and disease. In line with its importance, the human gastrointestinal microbiota has been extensively studied. Despite the fact that a significant part of the intestinal microbes has not yet been cultured, presently over 1000 different microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract have been identified. This review provides a systematic overview and detailed references of the total of 1057 intestinal species of Eukarya (92), Archaea (8) and Bacteria (957), based on the phylogenetic framework of their small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Moreover, it unifies knowledge about the prevalence, abundance, stability, physiology, genetics and the association with human health of these gastrointestinal microbes, which is currently scattered over a vast amount of literature published in the last 150 years. This detailed physiological and genetic information is expected to be instrumental in advancing our knowledge of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Moreover, it opens avenues for future comparative and functional metagenomic and other high throughput approaches that need a systematic and physiological basis in order to have an impact.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.FEMS microbiology reviews 05/2014; · 10.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe life-threatening vasculitis of the small bowel following fulminant hepatitis. A 35-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to consciousness disturbance and jaundice. He was diagnosed with fulminant hepatitis, and recovered after intensive medical care that included corticosteroid administration and artificial liver support. During reduction of the dosage of steroid, massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurred from the upper jejunum, revealed by arteriography. The hemorrhage could not be stopped, so a portion of the ileum, including the bleeding point, was excised. However, the intestinal hemorrhage continued from several small ulcers remaining outside the resected area. Pathological findings revealed an ulcerative region that was diagnosed as cytomegalovirus (CMV) vasculitis. His serum level of CMV (measured by real-time-detection polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) was high. Ganciclovir therapy was started, and manifestations of the CMV infection improved. In addition to CMV, PCR assay for hepatitis A virus (HAV), HBV, HCV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) was performed, but no viruses other than CMV were detected. We are the first to report such a case. We conclude that the possibility of CMV enteritis should be considered when patients present with unexplained fever and gastrointestinal hemorrhage following fulminant hepatitis, and we conclude that the early administration of ganciclovir should be considered.Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2002; 37(11):954-60. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasingly emerging as a multiresistant pathogen in the hospital environment. In immunosuppressed patients, this bacterium may cause severe infections associated with sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction. We report on a 57-year-old woman treated with intensive chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma who developed severe neutropenia, hemorrhagic pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure, which led to her death within 36 h of onset of pneumonia. Postmortem examination revealed bilateral extensive intraalveolar hemorrhage associated with severe infection by the gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In vitro susceptibility testing showed resistance to carbapenem, cephalosporines and aminoglycosides, but sensitivity to minocycline, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole). Early diagnosis and adequate antibiotic treatment were difficult, as the clinical course was rapid and fulminant, and this bacterium is resistant to multiple antibiotics. To improve prognosis in such cases, it will be necessary to develop an effective prophylactic strategy for high-risk patients.Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 06/2011; 17(6):858-62. · 1.55 Impact Factor