Fulminant hepatitis complicated by small intestine infection and massive hemorrhage.
ABSTRACT A 34-year-old man diagnosed with fulminant hepatitis, caused by hepatitis B virus, and acute renal failure was referred to our hospital. After admission to the intensive care unit, the liver and renal failure were ameliorated. Melena requiring transfusion occurred during the course of his illness. Endoscopic examination demonstrated pseudomembranes, erosions, ulcers, and hemorrhage in the duodenum, the upper jejunum, and the terminal ileum, suggesting widespread lesions throughout the small intestine. Pseudomonas putida, Xanthomonas maltophilia, and Candida glabrata were cultured from ileal fluid. Candida glabrata was also detected in sputum, feces, and on an intravenous catheter tip. The patient was treated with amphotericin B and miconazole. The melena was ameliorated, but inflammation of the small intestine persisted. Although we had difficulty in treating the enteritis, the patient survived, and 1 year later colonoscopic examination demonstrated no abnormalities. The small intestine is a difficult site to examine, but endoscopic examination of this site is important when massive hemorrhage develops.
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT— Among 103 patients with fulminant hepatic failure due to viral hepatitis, paracetamol overdose, or halothane anaesthesia, treated over a 2-year period, 23 had bacteraemia. Gram-positive organisms, mainly streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, were isolated from 61% of patients. Escherichia coli, the main type of gram-negative organism isolated, was found in 26% of patients and was associated with a fatal outcome more often than gram-positive bacteria. The type of organism isolated was not related to the aetiology of the hepatic necrosis, the presence of renal failure, or the clinical outcome. In the 23 patients with bacteraemia the same organism was isolated from other sites of infection, including sputum in four, urine in two, and the central venous catheter and arteriovenous shunt in one. Bacteraemia usually occurred 3 days after admission or on average 2 days after clinical deterioration to grade IV encephalopathy had begun. In 11 patients, the infection had an adverse effect on their clinical course, in three patients being implicated as a cause of the encephalopathy. Although in four patients the development of infection after all signs of encephalopathy had cleared may have been a major factor in their death, two of these patients had evidence of severe sepsis, pneumococcal peritonitis, and renal abscesses from which Candida albicans was cultured. An awareness of infection as a complication both of the acute stage of the illness and during recovery is essential if early detection and treatment are to be effective.Liver International 02/1982; 2(1):45 - 52.
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ABSTRACT: To study the pathological features of fungal infections affecting the lower intestinal tract (duodenum, small and large bowels). Between mid-1981 and mid-1991, 14 cases of deep mycotic infections affecting the lower intestinal tract were found among 890 consecutive necropsies on patients with malignant disease treated in a regional cancer centre (incidence 1.6%). These 14 cases accounted for 54% of all gastrointestinal fungal infection detected. The relevant clinical, necropsy, histological and microbiological data were reviewed. Candida spp and Aspergillus spp accounted for all infections. The macroscopic appearances included ulcers of varying configuration, mucosal flecks, sloughed mucous membranes, polypoid masses and segmental lesions. Either organism could produce this range of lesions, but Candida tended to have a mucosal location and Aspergillus was associated with transmural invasion. Combined infections showed Candida in the surface mucosa and Aspergillus hyphae in submucosal vessels with spread into the bowel wall in a radiating pattern. During the final illness, gastrointestinal symptoms and signs were often slight and microbiological investigations were unhelpful. Variable gross appearances are relevant for endoscopists, particularly lesions which resemble pseudomembranous colitis. Endoscopic biopsy specimens may have a role in antemortem diagnosis. Failure to diagnose these infections during life emphasises the importance of necropsy in the clinicopathological audit of deaths in this group of patients.Journal of Clinical Pathology 10/1992; 45(9):806-11. · 2.44 Impact Factor
- Medicine 10/1972; 51(5):367-79. · 4.23 Impact Factor