Article

How to measure sickness absence? Literature review and suggestion of five basic measures.

Department of Health and Environment, Linköping University, Sweden.
Scandinavian journal of social medicine 07/1998; 26(2):133-44. DOI: 10.1177/14034948980260020201
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine different sick-leave measures used in sickness absence research, and to suggest a systematic way of assessing sickness absence.
A review and analysis of five major studies on sick-leave performed 1983-1988 with an epidemiological approach.
Terminology and measures used varied in the different studies reviewed. The choice of a certain measure was seldom discussed in relation to the aim of the study. Based on the review five measures are suggested: frequency, length, incidence rate, cumulative incidence and duration. The definition of incidence rate is new and is a measure useful in studies of recurrent events within epidemiology.
We have reviewed sick-leave measures previously used in the literature and suggested five basic measures for assessing sick-leave.

1 Bookmark
 · 
135 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sickness absence, as work absenteeism justified by medical certificate, is an important health status indicator of the employees and, overall, sociodemographic and occupational characteristics are among the main factors associated with sickness absence. Public administration accounts for 21.8% of the formal job positions in Brazil. This population allows the study of a wide range of professional categories. To assess the profile and indicators of sickness absence among public workers from the municipality of Goiania, in the State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study on certified sick leaves, lasting longer than three days, of all civil servants from January 2005 to December 2010. Prevalence rates were calculated using as main criteria the number of individuals, episodes and sick days. 40,578 certified sick leaves were granted for health treatment among 13,408 public workers, in an annual average population of 17,270 people, which resulted in 944,722 days of absenteeism. The cumulative prevalence of sick leave for the period was of 143.7%, with annual average of 39.2% and duration of 23 days per episode. The cumulative prevalence of sickness absence was higher among women (52.0%), older than 40 years old (55.9%), with a partner (49.9%), low schooling (54.4%), education professionals (54.7%), > 10 years of service (61.9%), and with multiple work contracts (53.7%). Diagnoses groups (ICD-10) with higher cumulative prevalence of sick leaves were those with mental disorders (26.5%), musculoskeletal diseases (25.1%), and injuries (23.6%). Indicators of sickness absence express the magnitude of this phenomenon in the public sector and can assist in planning health actions for the worker, prioritizing the most vulnerable occupational groups.
    03/2015; 18(1):262-277.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate associations of giving birth with morbidity in terms of hospitalisation and social consequences of morbidity in terms of sickness absence (SA), while taking familial (genetics and shared environmental) factors into account. Prospective register-based cohort study. Estimates of risk of hospitalisation and SA were calculated as HRs with 95% CIs. All female twins, that is, women with a twin sister, born in Sweden. 5118 Swedish female twins (women with a twin sister), born during 1959-1990, where at least one in the twin pair had their first childbirth (T0) during 1994-2009 and none gave birth before 1994. Hospitalisation and SA during year 3-5 after first delivery or equivalent. Preceding the first childbirth, the mean annual number of SA days increased for mothers, and then decreased again. Hospitalisation after T0 was associated with higher HRs of short-term and long-term SA (HR for short-term SA 3.0; 95% CI 2.5 to 3.6 and for long-term SA 2.3; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2). Hospitalisation both before and after first childbirth was associated with a higher risk of future SA (HR for long-term SA 4.2; 95% CI 2.7 to 6.4). Familial factors influenced the association between hospitalisation and long-term SA, regardless of childbirth status. Women giving birth did not have a higher risk for SA than those not giving birth and results indicate a positive health selection into giving birth. Mothers hospitalised before and/or after giving birth had higher risks for future SA, that is, there was a strong association between morbidity and future SA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    BMJ Open 01/2015; 5(1):e006033. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Shift work research has shown that the relationship between exposure to irregular working times and sickness absence may differ between working populations. Not much is known about the prevalence of sickness absence in flight crews or about the relationship between exposure to different flight schedules and sickness absence in this population. To examine the association between cumulative exposure to different flight types and sickness absence in flight crew members. The study population consisted of flight crew members from a 5 year historic cohort. Flight schedule and sickness absence data were obtained from company records. The association between the cumulative exposure to different flight types and sickness absence episodes of >7 days was determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Adjusted models were obtained by adding potential confounders. Previous sickness absence was added to compose the fully adjusted models. The records of 8228 employees were analysed. The fully adjusted univariate analyses showed that the numbers of medium-haul flights and flights with time zone crossings were associated with an increase in the odds for sickness absence. The fully adjusted multivariate analyses showed no significant associations between flight types and sickness absence. Cumulative exposure to flight types was not independently associated with sickness absence in flight crew members when previous sickness absence was taken into account. Because sickness absence in the past can predict future absence, preventive strategies targeted at flight crew members with a history of high sickness absence may be effective. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Occupational medicine (Oxford, England). 12/2014;