How to measure sickness absence? Literature review and suggestion of five basic measures.
ABSTRACT To examine different sick-leave measures used in sickness absence research, and to suggest a systematic way of assessing sickness absence.
A review and analysis of five major studies on sick-leave performed 1983-1988 with an epidemiological approach.
Terminology and measures used varied in the different studies reviewed. The choice of a certain measure was seldom discussed in relation to the aim of the study. Based on the review five measures are suggested: frequency, length, incidence rate, cumulative incidence and duration. The definition of incidence rate is new and is a measure useful in studies of recurrent events within epidemiology.
We have reviewed sick-leave measures previously used in the literature and suggested five basic measures for assessing sick-leave.
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ABSTRACT: While it is generally accepted that high job strain is associated with adverse occupational outcomes, the nature of this relationship and the causal pathways involved are not well elucidated. We aimed to assess the association between job strain and long-term sickness absence (LTSA), and investigate whether any associations could be explained by validated health measures. Data from participants (n = 7346) of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), aged 40-47 at baseline, were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression to evaluate the association between job strain and LTSA over one year. Further analyses examined whether mental and physical health mediated any association between job strain and sickness absence. A positive association was found between job strain and risk of a LTSA episode, even controlling for confounding factors (HR = 1.64 (1.36-1.98); high job strain exposure accounted for a small proportion of LTSA episodes (population attributable risk 0.068). Further adjustments for physical health and mental health individually attenuated, but could not fully explain the association. In the fully adjusted model, the association between high job strain and LTSA remained significant (HR = 1.30 (1.07-1.59)). High job strain increases the risk of LTSA. While our results suggest that one in 15 cases of LTSA could be avoided if high job strain were eliminated, we also provide evidence against simplistic causal models. The impact of job strain on future LTSA could not be fully explained by impaired health at baseline, which suggests that factors besides ill health are important in explaining the link between job strain and sickness absence.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e96025. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As the number of studies on the future situation of sickness absentees still is very limited, we aimed to investigate the association between number of sick-leave days and future all-cause and cause-specific mortality among women and men.BMC Public Health 07/2014; 14(1):733. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sickness absence is a growing public health problem in Norway and Denmark, with the highest absence rates being registered in Norway. We compared time trends in sickness absence patterns of municipal employees in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark.Human Resources for Health 07/2014; 12(1):37. · 1.83 Impact Factor