Obstetric maneuvers for shoulder dystocia and associated fetal morbidity.
ABSTRACT We sought to determine the fetal injury rate associated with shoulder dystocia and to determine whether there is a higher rate of brachial plexus injury or bone fracture when fetal manipulation techniques are required for delivery.
A retrospective review of 285 cases of shoulder dystocia that occurred between January 1991 and December 1995 was performed. The type, sequence, and combination of obstetric maneuvers used to relieve the shoulder dystocia were noted. These cases were divided into two groups, as follows: (1) those resolved with McRoberts' maneuver, suprapubic pressure, or proctoepisiotomy or a combination of these and (2) those that required the addition of direct fetal manipulative maneuvers (Woods, posterior arm, or Zavanelli). Fetal injury was defined as the occurrence of brachial plexus palsy, clavicular fracture, humeral fracture, or fetal death caused by asphyxial complications.
The fetal injury rate was 24.9% (71/285), including 48 (16.8%) brachial plexus palsies, 27 (9.5%) clavicular fractures, and 12 (4.2%) humeral fractures. Sixteen infants had both nerve injury and bone fracture. Four (8.9%) brachial plexus palsies had documented persistence at 1 year of follow-up. One neonatal death occurred at age 3 months after an episode of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The incidence of bone fracture was not higher when direct fetal manipulation was required: 21 of 127 (16.5%) versus 18 of 158 (11.4%), p = 0.21. The incidence of brachial plexus palsy was also similar in both groups (27/127 vs 21/158, p = 0.1).
Direct fetal manipulation techniques used to alleviate shoulder dystocia are not associated with an increased rate of bone fracture or brachial plexus injury.
Article: Shoulder dystocia.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The frequency of shoulder dystocia in different reports has varied, ranging 0.2-3% of all vaginal deliveries. Once a shoulder dystocia occurs, even if all actions are appropriately taken, there is an increased frequency of complications, including third- or fourth-degree perineal lacerations, postpartum hemorrhage, and neonatal brachial plexus palsies. Health care providers have a poor ability to predict shoulder dystocia for most patients and there remains no commonly accepted model to accurately predict this obstetric emergency. Consequently, optimal management of shoulder dystocia requires appropriate management at the time it occurs. Multiple investigators have attempted to enhance care of shoulder dystocia by utilizing protocols and simulation training.Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 03/2013; 40(1):59-67. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Assisted vaginal delivery using forceps or a vacuum extractor is an essential part of obstetric practice. Operative vaginal delivery rates in the UK have remained stable between 10% and 15%, yielding safe and satisfactory outcomes for the majority of mothers and their babies. However, there has been an increase in medico-legal cases due to an increasing awareness of the potential morbidity for both the mother and the baby. There are many factors that can play a part in both the maternal and fetal complications resulting from instrumental deliveries. The aim of this educational review is to address these factors and identify measures to reduce them by adherence to the basics and relevant evidence.Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 11/2013; 33(8):781-6. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate whether eponymous maneuvers and mnemonics taught for the management of shoulder dystocia, vaginal breech delivery, and uterine inversion were remembered and understood in practice. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to obstetricians and midwives collecting information about the HELPERR and PALE SISTER mnemonics. Three extended matching questions evaluated participants’ knowledge of the correct maneuvers, with their matching eponyms, used in the management of shoulder dystocia, vaginal breech delivery, and uterine inversion. Results Of the 112 participants, 90% were familiar with the HELPERR mnemonic, with 79% using it in their practice. Of those who used it, only 32% could correctly decipher it (P = 0.032). PALE SISTER was mostly unfamiliar. The percentages of correct maneuvers used for managing shoulder dystocia, breech delivery, and uterine inversion were 84.6%, 58.3%, and 28.6%, respectively. However, the eponyms were correctly matched to their maneuvers in only 33.3%, 14.3%, and 0% of cases, respectively (P < 0.01). Conclusion The meanings of the mnemonics for obstetric emergencies were frequently recalled incorrectly. This, together with the poor correlation between knowledge of maneuvers and their eponyms, limits their usefulness and indicates that teaching should focus on learning without relying on mnemonics and eponyms.International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 01/2014; · 1.41 Impact Factor