To determine whether concurrent intravenous administration of the loop diuretic ethacrynic acid potentiates the toxicity of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin applied topically on the round window.
The authors studied the effects on cochlear sensitivity of co-administered intracardiac ethacrynic acid (40 mg/kg) and high-dose topical gentamicin solution (100%) applied to the round window. Comparisons were made with animals receiving ethacrynic acid plus systemic gentamicin (100 mg/kg); topical gentamicin alone; systemic gentamicin alone; and intravenous ethacrynic acid alone.
Experiments were carried out on pigmented guinea pigs weighing 400 to 500 g. Changes in cochlear function were characterized by monitoring shifts in compound action potential (CAP) thresholds by use of chronic indwelling electrodes implanted at the round window, vertex, and contralateral mastoid.
After 20 days animals receiving ethacrynic acid in combination with topical gentamicin to the round window failed to demonstrate a significant deterioration in cochlear sensitivity, whereas all animals receiving systemic gentamicin plus ethacrynic acid experienced profound increases in CAP thresholds.
This study supports the contention that ethacrynic acid potentiates aminoglycoside ototoxicity by facilitating the entry of the antibiotics from the systemic circulation into the endolymph. In addition, this study answers important clinical concerns regarding the safety of the use of topical aminoglycoside agents in combination with loop diuretics.
"The rapid induction of hair-cell loss from GM/EA treatment is believed to be due to the ability of EA to disrupt the blood-inner ear barrier thereby facilitating the entry of gentamicin into the cochlear fluids during periods of reduced blood flow following EA treatment (Conlon et al., 1998; Ding et al., 2003; Tran Ba Huy et al., 1983). Although EA facilitates the entry of GM into the cochlear fluid, GM must eventually be taken up into hair cells for cell death to occur (Hashino et al., 1997; Hiel et al., 1993). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concurrent administration of a high dose of gentamicin (GM; 125mg/kg IM) and ethacrynic acid (EA; 40mg/kg IV) results in rapid destruction of virtually all cochlear hair cells; however, the cell death signaling pathways underlying this rapid form of hair-cell degeneration are unclear. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying GM/EA-mediated cell death, several key cell death markers were assessed in the chinchilla cochlea during the early stages of degeneration. In the middle and basal turns of the cochlea, massive hair-cell loss including destruction of the stereocilia and cuticular plate occurred 12h after GM/EA treatment. Condensation and fragmentation of outer hair-cell nuclei, morphological features of apoptosis, were first observed 5-6h post-treatment in the basal turn of the cochlea. Metabolic function, reflected by succinate dehydrogenase histochemistry and mitochondrial staining, decreased significantly in the basal turn 4h following GM/EA treatment; these early changes were accompanied by the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol and intense expression of initiator caspase-9 and effector caspase-3. GM/EA failed to induce expression of extrinsic initiator caspase-8. These results suggest that the rapid loss of hair cells following GM/EA treatment involves cell death pathways mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the release of cytochrome c, activation of initiator caspase-9 and effector caspase-3.
Hearing research 09/2009; 259(1-2):16-23. DOI:10.1016/j.heares.2009.08.008 · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cochlear damage following topical application of aminoglycoside antibiotics to the round window membrane is a recognized phenomenon in both animal experiments and clinical reports. The authors have recently reported the ability of the free radical scavenging agent, alpha lipoic acid, to protect against the cochleo-toxic side effects of systemically administered aminoglycoside antibiotics. This study attempts to determine if the protective effect of this free radical scavenging agent is also seen following topical aminoglycoside application. Animals were implanted with osmotic pumps which delivered 2.5 microl/h solution of either neomycin 5% or neomycin plus alpha lipoic acid (50 mg/ml). Control animals received normal saline solution. Drug solutions were presented directly to the round window membrane over a 7-day period. Auditory sensitivity was monitored using compound action potentials (CAPs) of the auditory nerve recorded through an implanted chronic electrode terminating at the round window. Sixteen animals were entered into the study and randomized to one of the above groups. All animals receiving neomycin solution, with or without alpha lipoic acid, maintained normal thresholds for the first 3 days of the treatment period. Animals receiving neomycin solution alone experienced profound and rapid deterioration in auditory sensitivity, which was maximal by day 6. Animals receiving neomycin plus alpha lipoic acid also experienced significant cochlear damage; however, the rate of deterioration was slower than that seen in the group receiving neomycin alone. All control animals receiving saline maintained good hearing thresholds throughout the treatment period.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to analyze the entry of solutes through the round window membrane, a quantitative description of round window anatomy in relationship to scala tympani is required. High-resolution magnetic resonance microscopy was used to visualize the fluid spaces and tissues of the inner ear in three dimensions in isolated, fixed specimens from guinea pigs. Each specimen was represented as consecutive serial slices, with a voxel size of approximately 25 microm(3). The round window membrane, and its relationship to the terminal portion of scala tympani in the basal turn, was quantified in six specimens. In each image slice, the round window membrane and scala tympani were identified and segmented. The total surface area of the round window membrane averaged 1.18 mm(2) (S.D. 0.08, n=6). The length and variation of cross-sectional area as a function of distance for the cochlear aqueduct was determined in five specimens. The cochlear aqueduct was shown to enter scala tympani at the medial limit of the round window membrane, which corresponded to a distance of approximately 1 mm from the end of the scala when measured along its mid-point. These data are of value in simulating drug and other solute movements in the cochlear fluids and have been incorporated into a public-domain simulation program available at http://oto.wustl.edu/cochlea/.
Hearing Research 01/2002; 162(1-2):105-12. DOI:10.1016/S0378-5955(01)00375-6 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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