Is optimal angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor dosing neglected in elderly patients with heart failure?
ABSTRACT The benefit of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on mortality in heart failure has been proved in randomized controlled trials.
We prospectively evaluated the prescribing of ACE inhibitors and the prescribing of target ACE inhibitor doses in 43 ambulatory patients with heart failure to identify differences in ACE inhibitor utilization among elderly and nonelderly patients. The prescribed ACE inhibitor dose and other variables were assessed by direct patient interview and information contained in the medical record. Telephone calls were conducted at 3 months to identify the occurrence of clinical events.
Fewer elderly patients were prescribed target ACE inhibitor doses compared with nonelderly patients (21.4% vs 68.8%; p = 0.0136). Elderly patients were more likely to experience an event than nonelderly patients (11 vs 4; p = 0.0074). Elderly patients not receiving target ACE inhibitor doses demonstrated a trend toward more events than elderly patients who were at target doses.
The data suggest that this group of elderly patients with heart failure who received lower ACE inhibitor doses appeared to be at higher risk for clinical events.
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ABSTRACT: In the United States, older adults have become the fastest growing segment of the population and are expected to double in number to 70 million by 2030. As a whole, older adults have different health care needs than younger patients, and some of these needs should be met by pharmacists. Clinical pharmacy practice affecting older adults occurs in a variety of settings, including community, ambulatory care, primary care, hospital, assisted living, nursing home, home health care, hospice, and Alzheimer's disease units. Although specialty training in geriatrics or gerontology is not required for pharmacists to care for older adults, it is extremely helpful. Pharmacy education related to the care of older adults has improved slightly in the past several years but will need to increase even more to provide all pharmacists with the basic skills and knowledge to care for this unique group of patients. In addition, pharmacotherapy research targeting older adults needs to increase. Although it can be challenging, funding for this type of research is available. Patient and political advocacy is also important to support this growing population.Pharmacotherapy 09/2005; 25(10):1396 - 1430. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe the frequency and types of drug-related problems (DRPs) in hospitalised patients, and to identify risk factors for DRPs and the drugs most frequently causing them. From May to December 2002, 827 patients from six internal medicine and two rheumatology departments in five hospitals in Norway were included in this study. We recorded demographic data, drugs used, relevant medical history, laboratory data and clinical/pharmacological risk factors, i.e. reduced renal function, reduced liver function, heart failure, diabetes, compliance problems, drugs with a narrow therapeutic index and drug allergy. DRPs were documented after reviewing medical records and participation in multidisciplinary team discussions. An independent quality assessment team retrospectively assessed the DRPs in a randomly selected number of the study population. Of the patients, 81% had DRPs, and an average of 2.1 clinically relevant DRPs was recorded per patient. The DRPs most frequently recorded were dose-related problems (35.1% of the patients) followed by need for laboratory tests (21.6%), non-optimal drugs (21.4%), need for additional drugs (19.7%), unnecessary drugs (16.7%) and medical chart errors (16.3%). The patients used an average of 4.6 drugs at admission. A multivariate analysis showed that the number of drugs at admission and the number of clinical/pharmacological risk factors were both independent risk factors for the occurrence of DRPs, whereas age and gender were not. The drugs most frequently causing a DRP were warfarin, digitoxin and prednisolone, with calculated risk ratios 0.48, 0.42 and 0.26, respectively. The drug groups causing most DRPs were B01A-antithrombotic agents, M01A-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, N02A-opioids and C09A-angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, with risk ratios of 0.22, 0.49, 0.21 and 0.35, respectively. The majority of hospitalised patients in our study had DRPs. The number of drugs used and the number of clinical/pharmacological risk factors significantly and independently influenced the risk for DRPs. Procedures for identification of, and intervention on, actual and potential DRPs, along with awareness of drugs carrying a high risk for DRPs, are important elements of drug therapy and may contribute to diminishing drug-related morbidity and mortality.European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12/2004; 60(9):651-8. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM), as the most common form of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been playing an important role in the treatment of elderly cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in China. In this paper, we briefly discuss on the potential benefits of CHM for elderly patients with CVDs. Initially, we summarize the characteristics of CVDs in the elderly, the present treatment of CVDs in the elderly, and the clinical applications of CHM for CVDs. Secondly, in addition to introducing the features of CHM, we discuss the differences between CHM and Western medicine. Lastly, the potential benefits of CHM are presented. We came to a conclusion that as mutual complementary, Western medicine and TCM together shall benefit the elderly patients with CVDs.Journal of Geriatric Cardiology 12/2013; 10(4):305-9.