Risk Homeostasis Theory: An Overview

Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Injury Prevention (Impact Factor: 1.89). 07/1998; 4(2):89-91. DOI: 10.1136/ip.4.2.89
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Available from: Gerald J.S. Wilde, Jun 27, 2014

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Article: Risk Homeostasis Theory: An Overview

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    • "Automating certain driver tasks might increase driver safety on the assumption that human operations are replaced with an infallible machine. However, due to risk compensation (also called behavioural adaptation; for overviews, see Elvik 2006; Martens and Jenssen 2012; Wilde 1998), drivers may use automation in such a way that their behaviour changes (e.g., increasing speed, reducing headway, engaging in non-driving related tasks, etc.). Hence, more automation does not necessarily imply more safety. "
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    ABSTRACT: As automation in vehicles becomes more prevalent, the call for understanding the behaviour of the driver while driving an automated vehicle becomes more salient. Although a variety of driver behaviour models exist, and various psychological constructs have been said to be influenced by automation, an empirically testable psychological model of automated driving has yet to be developed. Building upon Stanton and Young's model of driving automation, this article presents an updated model of interrelated psychological constructs. The proposed model was created based upon a systematic literature search of driving automation papers and a subsequent quantification of the number of reported links between a selected set of psychological constructs. A secondary aim of this article is to reach consensus in the use of psychological constructs regarding driving automation. Henceforth special attention is paid to resolving the issue of construct proliferation.
    Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science 10/2015; DOI:10.1080/1463922X.2015.1101507
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    • "Previous research suggests that when design improvements reduce a user's risk of injury, that user will make a behavioral adjustment in a way that typically increases his or her risk, thereby diminishing some of the expected safety improvement (Peltzman, 1975; Graham and Garber, 1984). Some researchers argue that this behavioral adjustment, known as " risk compensation, " completely offsets any anticipated safety benefit (Wilde, 1998), a widely contested phenomenon known as " risk homeostasis " (O'Neill and Williams, 1998). This article discusses the development of a market systems modeling framework that incorporates safety considerations in both engineering attributes and consumer choice within the Sport Utility and Crossover Utility Vehicle (SUV/CUV) market in the United States. "

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    • "One specific issue repeatedly raised in discussions around adolescent participation in HIV vaccine trials is behavioral disinhibition, or the concern that adolescents who participate will practice riskier sexual behaviors [2]. This concern is based on risk compensation theory, which suggests that persons have an inherent set point that determines their willingness to take risks [7] [8]. According to this theory, any modification in the environment that reduces the external probability of risk will lead an individual to increase their risk-related behaviors (i.e., disinhibit ), thereby neutralizing the benefits of risk-reduction strategies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Placebo and randomization are important concepts that must be understood before youth can safely participate in HIV vaccine studies or other biomedical trials for HIV prevention. These concepts are central to the phenomenon of preventive misconception that may be associated with an increase in risk behavior among study participants related to mistaken beliefs. Persuasive messaging, traditionally used in the field of marketing, could enhance educational efforts associated with randomized clinical trials. Methods Two educational brochures were designed to increase knowledge about HIV vaccine clinical trials via one- and two-sided persuasive messaging. Through the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network, 120 youth were enrolled, administered a mock HIV vaccine trial consent, and then randomized to receive either no supplemental information or one of the two brochures. Results The two-sided brochure group in which common clinical trial misconceptions were acknowledged and then refuted had significantly higher scores on knowledge of randomization and interpretation of side effects than the consent-only control group, and the willingness to participate in an HIV vaccine trial was not decreased with the use of this brochure. Conclusion Two-sided persuasive messaging improves understanding of the concepts of randomization and placebo among youth who would consider participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Further evaluation of this approach should be considered for at-risk youth participating in an actual trial of a biomedical intervention for HIV prevention.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 08/2014; 55(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.01.006 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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