Upregulation of human chorionic gonadotrophin-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein by insulin-like growth factor-I in rat Leydig cells.
ABSTRACT Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays an essential role in reproductive function. Leydig cells express specific IGF-I receptors, and IGF-I enhances human chorionic gonadorphin (hCG)-induced testosterone formation. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of IGF-I on the gene expression and protein levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis. StAR mRNA is expressed in rat Leydig cells as two major transcripts of 3.8 and 1.7 kb. StAR mRNA levels (both 3.8 and 1.7 kb) were markedly induced about 20-fold by hCG (10 ng/mL). Concomitant addition of IGF-I (50 or 100 ng/mL) and hCG (10 ng/mL) resulted in significant increases in StAR and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) mRNA levels, whereas lower doses of IGF-I (1 or 10 ng/ mL) had small effects. Synergistic effects of IGF-I and hCG on StAR mRNA levels were confirmed by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA). IGF-I (100 ng/mL) enhanced hCG- and 20 OH-cholesterol + hCG-induced testosterone formation, whereas the conversions of pregnenolone, 17-OH pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione to testosterone were not affected. This suggests that the major effect of IGF-I is at the steps of StAR and P450scc, whereas other steroidogenic enzymes are not affected. To evaluate whether increased StAR mRNA levels induced by IGF-I and hCG are associated with increased StAR protein levels, we carried out Western blot analyses. Basal StAR protein levels were low after 24 h in culture. hCG (10 ng/mL) increased StAR protein by 4.5-fold. In the presence of IGF-I (100 ng/mL), hCG-induced StAR protein levels were further increased. In conclusion, our present study demonstrated that IGF-I enhances Leydig cell steroidogenesis by upregulating hCG-induced StAR gene expression and protein production.
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ABSTRACT: Integrative neuroendocrine control of the gonadotropic and somatotropic axes in childhood, puberty, and young adulthood proceeds via multiple convergent and divergent pathways in the human and experimental animal. Emerging ensemble concepts are required to embody independent, parallel, and interacting mechanisms that subserve physiological adaptations and pathological disruption of reproduction and growth. Significant advances in systems biology will be needed to address these challenges.Endocrine Reviews 05/2006; 27(2):101-40. · 14.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NR-DE) has potentially adverse effects on testicular steroidogenesis. However, it is unclear whether NR-DE influences steroidogenic systems in the brain. To investigate the effect of NR-DE on hippocampal steroidogenesis of adult male rats in comparison with its effect on the testis. F344 male rats (8-week-old) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8 or 9 per group) and exposed to clean air with 4.6 ± 3.2 μg/m(3) in mass concentration, NR-DE with 38 ± 3 μg/m(3) (a level nearly equivalent to the environmental standard in Japan (low NR-DE)), NR-DE with 149 ± 8 μg/m(3) (high NR-DE), or filtered diesel exhaust with 3.1 ± 1.9 μg/m(3) (F-DE), for 5 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 1, 2 or 3 months. F-DE was prepared by removing only particulate matters from high NR-DE with an HEPA filter. Exposures to the high NR-DE for 1 month, and low NR-DE for 2 months, significantly increased or tended to increase plasma and testicular testosterone levels compared to clean air exposure, which might have resulted from the increased expression of mRNA of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and its protein in the testes of rats. In the hippocampus, high NR-DE exposure for 1 month significantly increased the androstendione level compared to the clean air exposure, while no significant difference was observed in the steroidogenesis between fresh air exposure and any exposure to NR-DE or F-DE. NR-DE may influence steroidogenic enzymes in the testis, but not those in the hippocampus.Inhalation Toxicology 06/2012; 24(8):459-67. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Steroid hormone biosynthesis in steroidogenic cells is regulated through trophic hormone activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. However, many examples of the regulation of steroid synthesis via pathways other than the PKA pathway have been documented. In some cases these pathways act independently of PKA activation whereas in other cases, they act synergistically with it. The current understanding of additional signaling pathways and factors, such as the protein kinase C pathway, arachidonic acid metabolites, growth factors, chloride ion, the calcium messenger system, and others capable of regulating/modulating steroid hormone biosynthesis, and in many cases steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, are discussed in this review.Molecular Endocrinology 12/2005; 19(11):2647-59. · 4.75 Impact Factor