Upregulation of human chorionic gonadotrophin-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein by insulin-like growth factor-I in rat Leydig cells.
ABSTRACT Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays an essential role in reproductive function. Leydig cells express specific IGF-I receptors, and IGF-I enhances human chorionic gonadorphin (hCG)-induced testosterone formation. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of IGF-I on the gene expression and protein levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis. StAR mRNA is expressed in rat Leydig cells as two major transcripts of 3.8 and 1.7 kb. StAR mRNA levels (both 3.8 and 1.7 kb) were markedly induced about 20-fold by hCG (10 ng/mL). Concomitant addition of IGF-I (50 or 100 ng/mL) and hCG (10 ng/mL) resulted in significant increases in StAR and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) mRNA levels, whereas lower doses of IGF-I (1 or 10 ng/ mL) had small effects. Synergistic effects of IGF-I and hCG on StAR mRNA levels were confirmed by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA). IGF-I (100 ng/mL) enhanced hCG- and 20 OH-cholesterol + hCG-induced testosterone formation, whereas the conversions of pregnenolone, 17-OH pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione to testosterone were not affected. This suggests that the major effect of IGF-I is at the steps of StAR and P450scc, whereas other steroidogenic enzymes are not affected. To evaluate whether increased StAR mRNA levels induced by IGF-I and hCG are associated with increased StAR protein levels, we carried out Western blot analyses. Basal StAR protein levels were low after 24 h in culture. hCG (10 ng/mL) increased StAR protein by 4.5-fold. In the presence of IGF-I (100 ng/mL), hCG-induced StAR protein levels were further increased. In conclusion, our present study demonstrated that IGF-I enhances Leydig cell steroidogenesis by upregulating hCG-induced StAR gene expression and protein production.
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ABSTRACT: Nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NR-DE) has potentially adverse effects on testicular steroidogenesis. However, it is unclear whether NR-DE influences steroidogenic systems in the brain. To investigate the effect of NR-DE on hippocampal steroidogenesis of adult male rats in comparison with its effect on the testis. F344 male rats (8-week-old) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8 or 9 per group) and exposed to clean air with 4.6 ± 3.2 μg/m(3) in mass concentration, NR-DE with 38 ± 3 μg/m(3) (a level nearly equivalent to the environmental standard in Japan (low NR-DE)), NR-DE with 149 ± 8 μg/m(3) (high NR-DE), or filtered diesel exhaust with 3.1 ± 1.9 μg/m(3) (F-DE), for 5 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 1, 2 or 3 months. F-DE was prepared by removing only particulate matters from high NR-DE with an HEPA filter. Exposures to the high NR-DE for 1 month, and low NR-DE for 2 months, significantly increased or tended to increase plasma and testicular testosterone levels compared to clean air exposure, which might have resulted from the increased expression of mRNA of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and its protein in the testes of rats. In the hippocampus, high NR-DE exposure for 1 month significantly increased the androstendione level compared to the clean air exposure, while no significant difference was observed in the steroidogenesis between fresh air exposure and any exposure to NR-DE or F-DE. NR-DE may influence steroidogenic enzymes in the testis, but not those in the hippocampus.Inhalation Toxicology 06/2012; 24(8):459-67. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nanomaterials (NMs) are engineered for commercial purposes such as semiconductors, building materials, cosmetics, and drug carriers, while natural nanoparticles (NPs) already exist in the environment. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, they may interact actively with biological systems. Some of these interactions might be detrimental to human health, and therefore studies on the potential 'nanotoxicity' of these materials in different organ systems are warranted. The purpose of developing the concept of nanotoxicity is to recognize and evaluate the hazards and risks of NMs and evaluate safety. This review will summarize and discuss recent reports derived from cell lines or animal models concerning the effects of NMs on, and their application in, the endocrine system of mammalian and other species. It will present an update on current studies of the effects of some typical NMs-such as metal-based NMs, carbon-based NMs, and dendrimers-on endocrine functions, in which some effects are adverse or unwanted and others are favorable or intended. Disruption of endocrine function is associated with adverse health outcomes including reproductive failure, metabolic syndrome, and some types of cancer. Further investigations are therefore required to obtain a thorough understanding of any potential risk of pathological endocrine disruption from products containing NMs. This review aims to provide impetus for further studies on the interactions of NMs with endocrine functions.Small 02/2013; · 7.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The biosynthesis of steroid hormones is necessary to maintain reproductive functions and body homeostasis. This process, which is carried out in acutely and chronically regulated steroidogenic tissues, depends on the activation of signaling pathways particularly mediated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate dependent protein kinase (PKA). Data obtained by our and other groups in human placenta and other tissues, have clearly showed that dynamic phosphorylation catalyzed by PKA is related to steroidogenesis, including its hormonal regulation. it is known, however, that this process also involves the participation of other PKA independent signaling cascades, which are activated by trophic hormones, cytokines or growth factors and others such as calcium, chloride ions and arachidonic acid metabolites. The understanding of the stimulating factors, as well as the mechanisms that regulate the synthesis of steroid hormones, will allow us the identification of potential intervention sites that may contribute to maintain body homeostasis and different functions depending on them.TIP. Revista especializada en ciencias químico-biológicas. 06/2012; 15(1):24-36.